An evaluation of 157 dogs with humeral fractures was performed. Cocker spaniels were more likely to have humeral condylar fractures (HCFs) than other breeds (P < .0001). Male cocker spaniels were at increased risk (P < .001). Cocker spaniels had more bilateral HCFs than other breeds of dogs (P < .001). Eighteen dogs (17 purebred spaniels and 1 crossbred spaniel) with HCFs of unknown cause or occurring with normal activity were further studied, using radiography of their humeral condyle bilaterally (n = 18), computed tomography (n = 3), biopsy (n = 2), bone scintigraphy (n = 2), and genetic evaluation (n = 8). Fourteen of these 18 dogs had a nonfractured contralateral condyle. Twelve (86%) of the 14 nonfractured humeral condyles had a radiolucent line within the center of the condyle, 13 (93%) had radiographic signs of degenerative joint disease and an abnormal medial coronoid process, and six (43%) had periosteal proliferation involving the lateral epicondyle. Examination of biopsy samples from the fracture sites of two cocker spaniels showed fibrous tissue present at the fracture surfaces. The results of this study suggest an association between incomplete ossification of the humeral condyle in cocker spaniels and Brittany spaniels and a high prevalence of HCFs. Eight affected cocker spaniels with available pedigree information were found to be genetically related, suggesting that incomplete ossification of the humeral condyle may be a genetic disease with a recessive mode of inheritance.