Objective— This article describes a new technique for laparoscopic cryptorchid castration in standing horses.

Study Design— Prospective study.

Animals or Sample Population— Eight horses aged 11 months to 3 years and weighing between 300 and 643 kg.

Methods— Food was withheld for 24 to 36 hours, and then horses were sedated with detomidine HC1 (0.02 to 0.03 mg/kg) and butorphanol tartrate (0.02 mg/kg). The paralumbar fossa region was desensitized with 2% mepivacaine in an inverted “L” pattern and caudal epidural anesthesia was administered with either xylazine (0.18 mg/kg diluted to 10 to 15 mL with 0.9% sodium chloride) or a combination of 2% mepivacaine and xylazine (0.18 mg/kg). Initial laparoscopic exploration was performed from the left flank; in three horses, right flank laparoscopy was needed to complete the procedure. The spermatic cord was ligated within the abdomen with one or two sutures of 0 polydioxanone suture, and the testis or testes removed through a flank incision.

Results— In five horses with no palpably descended testes, standing laparoscopy was the only procedure performed, whereas in two horses, the abdominal testis was removed laparoscopically, and the descended testis was removed under short acting anesthesia. In one horse, with nonpalpable testes, it was determined by laparoscopic observation that the testes were in the inguinal canal, and castration was performed under general anesthesia. No surgical or postoperative complications were noted. The right side of the abdomen, and especially the right vaginal ring, could be easily observed from the left side by passing the laparoscope through a small perforation in the mesocolon of the descending colon or by elevating the descending colon with an instrument or by use of an arm in the rectum.

Conclusions— The standing laparoscopic approach combined with or without short-acting anesthesia to remove the descended testis is easily performed.

Clinical Relevance— This approach will provide surgeons with another option to castrate cryptorchid stallions.