Objective— To describe outcome in dogs with insufficient bone healing treated with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2).

Study Design— Retrospective study.

Animals— Four dogs clinically affected with delayed union or nonunion bone healing.

Methods— Medical records were reviewed for signalment, clinical problem, treatment, and outcome.

Results— Four dogs that had delayed- or nonunion of bone fracture, osteotomy, or arthrodesis were treated with either minimally invasive, fluoroscopically guided, percutaneous administration or direct surgical application of rhBMP-2. Doses used ranged from 0.2 to 1.6 mg of rhBMP-2. In 3 dogs, a calcium phosphate matrix (CPM) carrier was used whereas in 1 dog commercially prepared rhBMP-2 impregnated in an absorbable collagen sponge (INFUSE® Bone Graft) was used. This latter dog had osteomyelitis associated with implant infection before rhBMP-2 administration. Rapid radiographic union was noted in all dogs with excellent long-term outcome. Adverse effects were minimal and included transient worsening of lameness after percutaneous administration of rhBMP-2 in 2 dogs.

Conclusions— rhBMP-2 stimulated rapid bone formation at delayed- or nonunion sites resulting in radiographic bone union with minimal adverse effects and excellent long-term outcome in 4 dogs.

Clinical Relevance— Direct intraoperative administration or fluoroscopically guided, minimally invasive delivery of rhBMP-2 may be an effective treatment modality for bone delayed- or nonunions and could potentially be used to stimulate new bone production in a variety of orthopedic surgical conditions in dogs.