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Evaluation of Agreement Between Numerical Rating Scales, Visual Analogue Scoring Scales, and Force Plate Gait Analysis in Dogs

Authors

  • MARGARET M. QUINN BS,

    1. Comparative Orthopaedic Research Laboratory, Departments of Medical Sciences and Surgical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine and the Department of Statistics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI
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  • NICHOLAS S. KEULER MS,

    1. Comparative Orthopaedic Research Laboratory, Departments of Medical Sciences and Surgical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine and the Department of Statistics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI
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  • YAN LU MD,

    1. Comparative Orthopaedic Research Laboratory, Departments of Medical Sciences and Surgical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine and the Department of Statistics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI
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  • MARIA L. E. FARIA DVM, PhD,

    1. Comparative Orthopaedic Research Laboratory, Departments of Medical Sciences and Surgical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine and the Department of Statistics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI
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  • PETER MUIR BVSc, MVetClinStud, PhD, Diplomate ACVS,

    1. Comparative Orthopaedic Research Laboratory, Departments of Medical Sciences and Surgical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine and the Department of Statistics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI
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  • MARK D. MARKEL DVM, PhD, Diplomate ACVS

    1. Comparative Orthopaedic Research Laboratory, Departments of Medical Sciences and Surgical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine and the Department of Statistics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI
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Address reprint requests to Yan Lu, MD, Comparative Orthopaedic Research Laboratory School of Veterinary Medicine, 2015 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53706. E-mail: luy@svm.vetmed.wisc.edu.

Abstract

Objective— To evaluate the accuracy of numerical rating (NRS) and visual analogue (VAS) scoring scales compared with force plate gait analysis and agreement between observers for each scoring scale.

Study Design— Experimental study.

Animals— Mixed breed dogs (n=21) with a right limb tibial osteotomy repaired with an external fixator.

Methods— Three small-animal veterinarians with orthopedic training scored lameness using NRS and VAS before surgery, and at 4 and 8 weeks after surgery. Peak force and impulse were determined at the same time points using a force plate. Agreement between observers and with force plate data was assessed. Significance was set at P≤.05.

Results— Agreement was generally low among observers for both NRS and VAS scores. When evaluated at each time point, an acceptable level of agreement was present only at 4 weeks after surgery. Only impulse had a significant relationship with some of the observers' subjective scores. No significant relationships between any observer's scores and force plate data existed if very lame dogs were omitted.

Conclusions— Subjective scoring scales do not replace force plate gait analysis. Agreement is low unless lameness is severe, and each observer uses an individually unique scale. Subjective scoring scales most accurately reflect force plate gait analysis when lameness is severe.

Clinical Relevance— Subjective lameness scoring scales may not accurately reflect lameness and do not replace force plate gait analysis. Observers must stay the same during the duration of a study for accurate analyses.

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