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Kinetic Gait Analysis of Healthy Dogs on Two Different Surfaces

Authors

  • AMY S. KAPATKIN MS, DVM, Diplomate ACVS,

    1. Department of Clinical Studies–PHL, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, and
    2. Department of Population Health and Reproduction, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California–Davis, Davis, CA
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  • GREGG ARBITTIER DVM,

    1. Department of Clinical Studies–PHL, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, and
    2. Department of Population Health and Reproduction, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California–Davis, Davis, CA
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  • PHILIP H. KASS DVM, PhD, Diplomate ACVPM,

    1. Department of Clinical Studies–PHL, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, and
    2. Department of Population Health and Reproduction, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California–Davis, Davis, CA
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  • ROBERT S. GILLEY DVM, PhD, Diplomate ACVS,

    1. Department of Clinical Studies–PHL, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, and
    2. Department of Population Health and Reproduction, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California–Davis, Davis, CA
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  • GAIL K. SMITH VMD, PhD

    1. Department of Clinical Studies–PHL, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, and
    2. Department of Population Health and Reproduction, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California–Davis, Davis, CA
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  • Study performed at the University of Pennsylvania, School of Veterinary Medicine. Study funded by Ms Kindy French, Washington, DC (No personal or financial interest) and NIH/Merck summer student scholarship T35 RR07065.

  • Presented in part at the NIH/Merck student scholar sessions, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 2003 and the Veterinary Orthopedic Society Annual Conference March 4, 2007, Sun Valley, ID.

  • Dr. Arbittier's current address is Twin Rivers Animal Hospital, 650 Route 33 East, East Winsdor NJ 08520.

Address reprint requests to Dr. Amy S. Kapatkin, DVM, Diplomate ACVS, Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California–Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616. E-mail: askapatkin@ucdavis.edu.

Abstract

Objective— To determine the effects of 2 different, commonly used surfaces with different coefficients of friction on ground reaction forces in normal dogs.

Study Design— Prospective, observational, single cross-over study.

Animals— Dogs (n=10) with no gait abnormalities.

Methods— Dogs were acclimated to the force plate and 5 valid trials for each dog and each limb were recorded. Velocity and acceleration were tightly controlled. Each dog was tested on both surfaces sequentially in different sequences. Data analysis was done on peak vertical force, peak impulse, breaking and propulsion peak forces and impulses. Three-way repeated measures analysis of variance was used to separately evaluate the effect of floor type on force plate measures in fore and hind limbs, while controlling for side (left versus right) and experimental replicate. P-values<.05 were considered significant. Mean force and 95% confidence interval for the 6 variables analyzed for all limbs on each surface were calculated.

Results— There were no significant differences in ground reaction forces between the linoleum and the carpet surface for thoracic or pelvic limbs for all gait variables measured. There were no significant differences between each individual gait trial per dog between the right and left thoracic limbs trials nor differences between the right and left pelvic limb trials.

Conclusions— Normal dogs had no change in their ground reaction forces on linoleum and carpet surfaces.

Clinical Relevance— Kinetic results from multi-center or comparative trials will not be affected by use of either linoleum or carpet surfaces.

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