Radiographic Measurement of the Proximal and Distal Mechanical Joint Angles in the Canine Tibia

Authors

  • DAVID I. DISMUKES DVM,

    1. Comparative Orthopaedic Laboratory, Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO.
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  • JAMES L. TOMLINSON DVM, MVSc, Diplomate ACVS,

    1. Comparative Orthopaedic Laboratory, Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO.
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  • DEREK B. FOX DVM, PhD, Diplomate ACVS,

    1. Comparative Orthopaedic Laboratory, Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO.
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  • JAMES L. COOK DVM, PhD, Diplomate ACVS,

    1. Comparative Orthopaedic Laboratory, Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO.
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  • KUG JU EDDIE SONG DVM

    1. Comparative Orthopaedic Laboratory, Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO.
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Address reprint requests to David I. Dismukes, DVM, Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, University of Missouri-Columbia, 379 East Campus Drive, Columbia, MO 65211. E-mail: dismukesd@missouri.edu.

Abstract

Objective— To describe a method for radiographic measurement of proximal and distal mechanical joint angles of the canine tibia. Normal ranges were established for a population of dogs, and specifically, Labrador retrievers, with cranial cruciate ligament rupture.

Study Design— Retrospective study.

Sample Population— Tibiae (n=105) of dogs evaluated for cranial cruciate ligament rupture; 70 tibiae were from Labrador retrievers, 35 tibiae were from other breeds.

Methods— Anatomic landmarks were established and craniocaudal radiographs were used to measure the mechanical medial proximal (mMPTA) and distal (mMDTA) tibial angles in the frontal plane.

Results— Means (±SD) for all tibiae were mMPTA, 93.30±1.78°, and mMDTA, 95.99±2.70°. For Labrador retrievers, means were mMPTA, 93.38±1.81°, and mMDTA 96.34±2.51°. No significant differences were detected between Labrador Retrievers and non-Labrador retrievers with respect to mMPTA (power=0.5) or mMDTA (power=0.342). Labrador Retrievers were significantly younger than non-Labradors (P=.003).

Conclusion— A method for measurement of the mechanical joint angles of the canine tibia in the frontal plane was established and reference ranges for a population of dogs and Labrador Retrievers with cranial cruciate ligament rupture are reported.

Clinical Relevance— The established method of measurement and references ranges can be used to aid in diagnosis, determining indications, and surgical planning for angular limb deformities of the tibia, especially when affected bilaterally. The methodology and reference values may also be used for postoperative critique.

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