Comparison of Chondrogenic Potential in Equine Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Derived from Adipose Tissue and Bone Marrow

Authors

  • MARTIN A. VIDAL BVSc, MS, Diplomate ACVS,

    1. Equine Health Studies Program, Laboratory for Equine and Comparative Orthopedic Research, Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences and the Departments of Pathobiological Sciences and Comparative Biomedical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA
    2. Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH
    3. Stem Cell Laboratory, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA
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  • SANDRA O. ROBINSON BS,

    1. Equine Health Studies Program, Laboratory for Equine and Comparative Orthopedic Research, Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences and the Departments of Pathobiological Sciences and Comparative Biomedical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA
    2. Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH
    3. Stem Cell Laboratory, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA
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  • MANDI J. LOPEZ DVM, MS, PhD, Diplomate ACVS,

    1. Equine Health Studies Program, Laboratory for Equine and Comparative Orthopedic Research, Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences and the Departments of Pathobiological Sciences and Comparative Biomedical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA
    2. Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH
    3. Stem Cell Laboratory, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA
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  • DANIEL B. PAULSEN DVM, PhD, Diplomate ACVP,

    1. Equine Health Studies Program, Laboratory for Equine and Comparative Orthopedic Research, Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences and the Departments of Pathobiological Sciences and Comparative Biomedical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA
    2. Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH
    3. Stem Cell Laboratory, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA
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  • OLGA BORKHSENIOUS PhD,

    1. Equine Health Studies Program, Laboratory for Equine and Comparative Orthopedic Research, Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences and the Departments of Pathobiological Sciences and Comparative Biomedical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA
    2. Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH
    3. Stem Cell Laboratory, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA
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  • JILL R. JOHNSON DVM, MS, Diplomate ACVIM & ABVP,

    1. Equine Health Studies Program, Laboratory for Equine and Comparative Orthopedic Research, Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences and the Departments of Pathobiological Sciences and Comparative Biomedical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA
    2. Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH
    3. Stem Cell Laboratory, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA
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  • RUSTIN M. MOORE DVM, PhD, Diplomate ACVS,

    1. Equine Health Studies Program, Laboratory for Equine and Comparative Orthopedic Research, Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences and the Departments of Pathobiological Sciences and Comparative Biomedical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA
    2. Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH
    3. Stem Cell Laboratory, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA
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  • JEFFREY M. GIMBLE MD, PhD

    1. Equine Health Studies Program, Laboratory for Equine and Comparative Orthopedic Research, Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences and the Departments of Pathobiological Sciences and Comparative Biomedical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA
    2. Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH
    3. Stem Cell Laboratory, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA
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  • Study conducted at the Pennington Biomedical Research Center and the School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA. Funded and supported in part by the Grayson-Jockey Club Research Foundation Inc., the LSU Equine Health Studies Program, and the Pennington Biomedical Research Foundation.

Address reprint requests to Dr. Martin A. Vidal, BVSc, MS, Diplomate ACVS, Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616. E-mail: mavidal@ucdavis.edu

Abstract

Objective— To compare the chondrogenic potential of adult equine mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow (MSCs) or adipose tissue (ASCs).

Study Design— In vitro experimental study.

Animals— Adult Thoroughbred horses (n=11).

Methods— BM (5 horses; mean [±SD] age, 4±1.4 years) or adipose tissue (6 horses; mean age, 3.5±1.1 years) samples were obtained. Cryopreserved MSCs and ASCs were used for pellet cultures in stromal medium (C) or induced into chondrogenesis±transforming growth factor-3 (TGFβ3) and bone morphogenic factor-6 (BMP-6). Pellets harvested after 3, 7, 14, and 21 days were examined for cross-sectional size and tissue composition (hematoxylin and eosin), glycosaminoglycan (GAG) staining (Alcian blue), collagen type II immunohistochemistry, and by transmission electron microscopy. Pellet GAG and total DNA content were measured using dimethylmethylene blue and Hoechst DNA assays.

Results— Collagen type II synthesis was predominantly observed in MSC pellets from Day 7 onward. Unlike ASC cultures, MSC pellets had hyaline-like matrix by Day 14. GAG deposition occurred earlier in MSC cultures compared with ASC cultures and growth factors enhanced both MSC GAG concentrations (P<.0001) and MSC pellet size (P<.004) after 2 weeks in culture.

Conclusion— Equine MSCs have superior chondrogenic potential compared with ASCs and the equine ASC growth factor response suggests possible differences compared with other species.

Clinical Relevance— Elucidation of equine ASC and MSC receptor profiles will enhance the use of these cells in regenerative cartilage repair.

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