Objective— To determine the incidence of, and risk factors for, fibular fracture after tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) in dogs.

Study Design— Case series.

Sample Population— TPLO (n=168) on 142 dogs.

Methods— Medical records (January 2006–September 2007) and radiographs of all dogs that had TPLO were reviewed. Data retrieved were breed, sex, age, weight, type of plate, use of a jig, time to recheck, preoperative tibial plateau angle (TPA), immediate postoperative TPA, and presence or absence of fibular fracture.

Results— Fibular fractures occurred in 5.4% TPLOs. Body weight, change in TPA, and preoperative TPA were significantly higher in dogs with fibular fracture. TPLO without use of a jig was significantly associated with fibular fracture. Age, postoperative TPA, and plate type were not significantly associated with fibular fracture.

Conclusions— Fibular fracture is uncommon after TPLO. Risk factors are increased body weight, greater preoperative TPA, greater change in TPA, and TPLO performed without a jig. All fractures occurred during convalescence.

Clinical Relevance— Owners should be warned of potential complications and risk factors associated for fibular fracture after TPLO.