Immunohistochemical and Histomorphometric Evaluation of Vascular Distribution in Intact Canine Cranial Cruciate Ligament

Authors

  • Kei Hayashi DVM, PhD, Diplomate ACVS,

    1. JD Wheat Veterinary Orthopedic Research Laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California Davis, Davis, CA
    2. Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California Davis, Davis, CA
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  • Jitender Bhandal BVSc,

    1. JD Wheat Veterinary Orthopedic Research Laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California Davis, Davis, CA
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  • Sun Young Kim DVM, MS,

    1. JD Wheat Veterinary Orthopedic Research Laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California Davis, Davis, CA
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  • Carlos O. Rodriguez, Jr. DVM, PhD, Diplomate ACVIM,

    1. Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California Davis, Davis, CA
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  • Rachel Entwistle MS,

    1. JD Wheat Veterinary Orthopedic Research Laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California Davis, Davis, CA
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  • Diane Naydan BS,

    1. William R. Pritchard Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California Davis, Davis, CA
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  • Amy Kapatkin DVM, Diplomate ACVS,

    1. JD Wheat Veterinary Orthopedic Research Laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California Davis, Davis, CA
    2. Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California Davis, Davis, CA
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  • Susan M. Stover DVM, PhD, Diplomate ACVS

    1. JD Wheat Veterinary Orthopedic Research Laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California Davis, Davis, CA
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Corresponding Author
Kei Hayashi, DVM, PhD, Diplomate ACVS, Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616
E-mail: khayashi@ucdavis.edu

Abstract

Objectives: To (1) describe vascular distribution in the grossly intact canine cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) using immunohistochemical techniques specific to 2 components of blood vessels (factor VIII for endothelial cells, laminin for basement membrane); and (2) compare the vascularity in different areas of interest (craniomedial versus caudolateral bands; core versus epiligamentous regions; and proximal versus middle versus distal portions) in the intact normal canine CCL.

Study Design: In vitro study.

Animals: Large, mature dogs (n=7) of breeds prone to CCL disease that were euthanatized for nonorthopedic conditions.

Methods: Intact CCL were collected from fresh canine cadavers free from stifle pathology. CCL tissue was processed for immunohistochemistry and stained for factor VIII and laminin. Vascular density was determined by histomorphometric analysis.

Results: Specific vascular staining was sparsely identified throughout the CCL; however, the proximal portion of the CCL appears to have a greater number of vessels than the middle or distal portion of the ligament.

Conclusions: The CCL is a hypovascular tissue and its vascular distribution is not homogeneous.

Ancillary