Sensitivity and Specificity of 3D Models of the Radioulnar Joint Cup in Combination With a Sphere Fitted to the Ulnar Trochlear Notch for Estimation of Radioulnar Incongruence In Vitro


Corresponding Author

Prof. Dr. Peter Böttcher, DECVS, Klinik für Kleintiere, An den Tierkliniken 23, D 04103 Leipzig, Germany.




To determine the sensitivity and specificity of estimation of radioulnar incongruence (RUI) by use of 3-dimensional (3D) image renderings in combination with a sphere fitted to the ulnar trochlear notch.

Study Design

In vitro study.

Sample Population

Right forelimbs (n = 8) of canine cadavers weighing >20 kg.


CT-based 3D models (n = 63) of the radioulnar joint cup with different states of RUI were used. A sphere was fitted to the trochlear notch of each of the models and 2 independent observers estimated RUI based on the relation of the sphere and the radial joint surface blinded to the true state of RUI at 1 mm precisely (−2 mm to +2 mm).


Mean sensitivity and specificity for detecting any form of incongruent joint was 0.94 and 0.89, respectively. Evaluating a positive step (short radius) versus a congruent joint resulted in a mean sensitivity and specificity of 0.89 and 0.96, respectively. A negative RUI (short ulna) was diagnosed with a mean sensitivity and specificity of 1.00 and 0.92, respectively. Intra-class-correlation coefficient for inter-observer agreement was 0.99.


Fitting a sphere to the ulnar trochlea notch significantly improves diagnostic accuracy of 3D models of the radioulnar joint cup when diagnosing RUI.