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The sounds of animals, especially the songs of birds, have inspired musicians from time immemorial. In biomusic, composers use recorded sounds of animals (or even plants) as part of their music.1 Using real animal noises in a music piece is fundamentally different from imitating their sounds with an instrument, for imitation with an instrument is an interpretation of the animal voice, whereas biomusic uses a sample of the natural sound itself. Imitating animal voices has a long tradition in Western music: From Vaillant and des Prez in the Middle Ages and Renaissance to Messiaen in the 20th century, composers have tried to reproduce birdsongs with musical instruments (Doolittle). In popular music this technique has been regularly used since the 1950s (e.g., “Rockin’ Robin” by Bobby Day, which peaked at Number 2 in the US Billboard charts in 1958). Biomusic is a particular form of sampling, but in contrast to reusing a section or sample of a sound recording from another musical piece, samples from naturalistic recordings are used. The earliest biomusic piece is probably the symphonic poem Pini di Roma (Pines of Rome) by Ottorino Respighi, which was first performed in 1924. In the third movement of the symphonic poem, the composer takes the opportunity to include the actual song of a nightingale, which is played on a gramophone along with the orchestra.2 As composer and zoömusicologist Emily Doolittle points out in her essay “Crickets in the Concert Hall,” Respighi's use of the nightingale recording is in the tradition of Romantic Era composers, simply providing color to the programmatic world of his piece. The idea of taking animal sounds seriously as music emerged in the early 1950s, when animal sound samples were occasionally used in the sound collages of musique concrète.3 This particular form of electroacoustic music is based on the aesthetic concept developed by Pierre Schaeffer, which emphasized the use of recorded sound as a primary compositional resource (Palombini). However, this avant-garde music was reserved for very small circles of modernist intelligentsia and not part of popular culture.

It took two decades and the invention of four-track recording machines until samples of animal noises became an established part of pop music. Here, I will focus on the use of animal sounds in the music of The Beatles, who had an important role in spreading biomusic in popular culture. To an extent no pop artist had achieved before, they introduced an audience of hundreds of millions listeners to the sounds of animals as part of a pop song. The Beatles’ balance of pop music accessible to a broad audience and avant-garde profoundly propelled the evolution of popular music (Riley; Hertsgaard), but the use of biomusic is one aspect of this pop cultural avant-garde that has often been overlooked.

However, The Beatles were not the first to use animal noises in popular music. Early examples are the novelty song “(How Much Is) That Doggie in the Window?” by Patti Page released in 1952 and the record “The Singing Dogs” produced by the Danish ornithologist and sound engineer Carl Weismann three years later. Weismann cut and edited recordings of dog barks of varying pitches and set them against simple backing tracks of four songs, including “Jingle Bells” and “Three Blind Mice.”4 In 1964, the American girl group The Shangri-Las hit the charts with “Remember (Walkin’ in the Sand),” which featured the calls of sea gulls and the sound of surf in the background of the chorus. Unlike “(How Much Is) That Doggie in the Window?” and “The Singing Dogs,” the biomusic sample in The Shangri-Las recording was not used for a comical effect but to enhance the seaside atmosphere of the lyrics (the seabird sounds were probably also chosen to strengthen the polarity between the up-tempo chorus and the slower verses, because the timbre of the gull squawks contrasted well with the doom-laden, low pitched piano line in the verses). Another early example of the use of animal voices in popular music is the album Pet Sounds of the Beach Boys released in 1966. Despite its very biomusical title, however, Pet Sounds contains only 9.5 seconds of, again, dog barks.5 What makes the use of animal sounds in the work of The Beatles so remarkable is that in the 1960s arguably no other recording pop artists used such a huge variety of different biomusic samples with different compository functions in their pieces as they did.

Much of The Beatles’ originality stems from their innovative ideas about melody, harmony, rhythm, and form (Everett; Wagner “Domestication” and “Starting in the Middle”), but their recordings also played an important part in conceptual changes in popular music (Hertsgaard; Galenson). The Beatles, and in particular Paul McCartney, were fascinated by the work of Karlheinz Stockhausen and John Cage (Miles 219–220; MacDonald 231, 291) and after 1966 they regularly used recording techniques inspired by these avant-garde composers.6 Studio procedures that involved bouncing down four recording tracks from one recorder onto one track of a second four-track recorder, thereby increasing the number of available tracks, which could then be used for sound effects, were an important development for the band's experimentalism. The freedom arising from this advance in recording technology first showed on the album Revolver (1966), which contains numerous unusual sounds never before heard on record.7 The experimental masterpiece of this album is the track “Tomorrow Never Knows,” which consists mainly of layers of sound effects produced by tape loops, most of them made by superimposition and acceleration.8 The track was appropriately placed at the end of the album, for it does not fit to the other songs but points directly to a new direction for experimental music. Music researchers referred to some of the repetitive sound patterns used in “Tomorrow Never Knows” as “eerie bird sounds” (Riley 199) and compared them to the sounds of wasps and sea gulls (Hertsgaard 178). However, these sound effects are not animal sounds, but edited recordings of voice and sitar, and it is questionable whether a similarity to any animal noises was intended by the composers.

The use of real animal sounds began almost a year after the recording of “Tomorrow Never Knows” when The Beatles worked on their next album, Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band. This album is regarded as one of the most influential records of pop music (Moore), and Mark Hertsgaard's appraisal is no exaggeration: “Nothing in popular music was the same after Sgt Pepper; it ranks as one of the cultural landmarks of the twentieth century” (221). The artistic and historic importance of the album is mainly because of revolutionary production techniques employing innovative sound effects and orchestration, which created groundbreaking new colors and textures (Hertsgaard 203–21). These avant-garde sound effects also included samples of animal noises that were added to the final mix of “Good Morning Good Morning.” This first foray by The Beatles into the world of biomusic was by no means a simple gimmick, such as the dog barking on the Beach Boys' Pet Sounds. The Beatles took the use of animal sound samples a great deal further than contemporary recording pop artists, and the result was a menagerie, from a crowing rooster that opens the song, to a host of other animal sounds that close it.9 The final succession of animal sounds enters in bar 56 (at 1:57), while the backing track slowly fades out. Again we hear the rooster that opened the song, followed by the cheeping of chicks, a meowing cat, the barking of a dog, the neighing of a horse, a flock of bleating sheep, and then the roar of a lion followed by the trumpeting of an elephant. These are superseded by a pack of hounds in full cry, together with galloping horses and blasting hunting horns. Finally, the whole avalanche of animal sound effects fades back into barnyard noises, including a mooing cow, the clucks of a chicken and the faint twittering of a chaffinch.10 This time the chicken is a hen, rather than the rooster that opened both the song and the final sequence. The concluding hen clucks are used to bridge the gap between “Good Morning Good Morning” and the following title on the record: They are cut and mixed in such a way that they gradually develop into the opening guitar sound of the reprise of “Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band.”“That was one of the luckiest edits one could ever get,” remembers George Martin, The Beatles record producer, in his memoirs (Martin 203).

Increasing the number of animal sounds in their recordings is only the first of many biomusical innovations by The Beatles. Most importantly, their animal sound samples had different functions and meanings than they did for other recording artists. In the remainder of this article, I will explore these functions in detail and I will also try to shed more light on the cultural implications of the use of animal sound samples in pop music.

The propagation of biomusic in popular culture by The Beatles took place during the peak of the 1960s counterculture in the second half of the decade. Concurrent with the new forms of music by The Beatles was the rise of hippie culture, which had a strong back-to-nature ethos, and both led to the rapid evolution of a youth subculture that emphasized change and experimentation. The album Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band was released on June 1, 1967 during the so-called Summer of Love, the height of the hippie movement. However, the animal sounds used on “Good Morning Good Morning” are by no means a simple incantation of pastoral peace or a reference to an idealized innocent state of nature, which were typical of hippie culture.11 The animal sound samples are a brickbat hurled at the social mainstream of the day, in particular the sequence of the fox hunt is a colorful acoustic illustration of the song's subtext, which satirizes the mad dash of modern urban life.

Although The Beatles’ composition and production style changed remarkably after Sgt. Pepper, samples of animal sounds were used on all of the subsequent albums that the group released before their break-up in 1970, except for the soundtrack of the cartoon film Yellow Submarine.12 The Beatles mainly employed sounds from mammals, but they also sometimes used bird noises, and occasionally sounds made by insects. The sources of The Beatles’ animal samples are as diverse as their musical functions.

Creation of Atmosphere

  1. Top of page
  2. Creation of Atmosphere
  3. Illustration of Text, and Melodic and Rhythmic Functions
  4. Musique Concrète Enters Popular Culture
  5. Conclusion
  6. Acknowledgments
  7. Works Cited
  8. Discography

In two instances, the use of biomusic serves primarily to set an auditory atmosphere without serving any more distinguished rhythmic or harmonic function within the song's arrangement. One is the song “Across The Universe” (1969). The recording history of this song shows that The Beatles were unsure about how to develop the track (Lewisohn 193–99). Eventually, “Across The Universe” was published on the charity album No One's Gonna Change Our World for the World Wildlife Fund, and to pick up the wildlife theme of the LP, bird noises were added to the final mix of the track. The opening features a recording of a great tit that had been varyspeeded, so that it sounds lower than the natural bird vocalization. Deeper in the acoustic background we hear a nightingale—a species of bird whose song has inspired European poets and composers like no other. First surfacing in medieval troubadour and Minnesänger lyrics, the song of the nightingale symbolizes both the renewing powers of nature and human love.13 Thus, the use of a nightingale's song could be viewed as an illustration of the song's elaboration of love as a quasi-cosmic force. However, it is questionable whether this was intended by the producer, because the nightingale song is mixed very low in the background and quite subdued compared with the great tit. Also, many pop listeners may not have been aware of the symbolism of the nightingale's song within European poetic traditions.14 The birdsong sequence is concluded by the sound of a bird's wing flapping on water (probably a swan) before a steel string guitar kicks off the instrumental backing. The flapping sound returns during the fade out of the song (3:37), so that the track is bounded by bird noises.15

The effect of setting an atmospheric scene at the beginning of a song was also employed on “Sun King” from the LP Abbey Road (1969). Here the sound of chirping field crickets is used to evoke the tranquil mood of a summer night, before the lead guitar hits the first notes of the opening main phrase. In addition, the thirty-six seconds of cricket chirping also function to bridge the changes in key and tempo from the previous track “You Never Give Me Your Money,” in a similar way that the chicken clucking connects “Good Morning Good Morning” and the reprise of “Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band.” However, the editing of the cricket sounds is much less sophisticated, it simply fades out after moving gradually from the right to the left stereo channel.

Illustration of Text, and Melodic and Rhythmic Functions

  1. Top of page
  2. Creation of Atmosphere
  3. Illustration of Text, and Melodic and Rhythmic Functions
  4. Musique Concrète Enters Popular Culture
  5. Conclusion
  6. Acknowledgments
  7. Works Cited
  8. Discography

George Martin arguably created his finest arrangement for any Beatles song for “I Am The Walrus” (1967), The Beatles’ most surreal assault on straight society. With his imaginative orchestration (using unconventional cello cadenzas and violin parts), as well as various sound effects and unidentifiable instruments, “I Am The Walrus” is highly original, and unlike any popular music that came before it. The sound samples used on this track include a recording of a BBC broadcast of Shakespeare's King Lear and, lo and behold, animal sounds. The first animal voice illustrates and develops the most revealing line of the nonsequitur lyrics, “Don't you think the joker laughs at you?” which is followed in the next bar by the sound of human laughter and a dog barking (2:43) edited to fit the metrum and key of the song. Thus, in addition to the referential significance of the animal sound, it also has a rhythmic and melodic function in the arrangement of the backing track. The sequence of laughter consists of three crotchet triplets: the first (Ha ha ha!) is on C#5, the second (Hi hi hi!) on G#5, and the three dog barks are on C#5 again. Just a few seconds later in bar 51 (2:51), the sound of a snorting horse is added to the recording. However, this time the animal sound does not hit any particular note but merely emphasizes Lennon's wordplay, “See how they smile, like pigs in a sty, see how they snied.” However, it is difficult to ascertain whether the dog and horse sounds are actual recordings of animal sounds or the imitation of these sounds by human voice.

On the 1968 album The Beatles (aka the White Album) the group scaled back on studio tricks and production techniques that had distinguished the previous album Sgt. Pepper and the singles “Strawberry Fields Forever” and “I Am The Walrus.” However, one production feature they did not give up was the use of animal sounds. Such biomusic effects are featured very prominently on “Piggies,” the song that, as Hertsgaard writes, “kept the Beatles’ countercultural flame alive with its withering portrait of bourgeois gluttony” (258). On this track, the sounds of a grunting pig are used to illustrate the lyrics, but, at the same time the grunts also have an important rhythmic function in the arrangement of the song. The first hog noise is used at 0:14 after the second line of the first verse, “Life is getting worse,” four grunts are cut and mixed to fall exactly on the last four crotchet beats of bar six, thereby reinforcing the drive of bass and tambourine and building up tension for the final line of the verse. However, The Beatles were careful not to overdo the effect and only used it again in the last verse (1:30). Here, two grunts are mixed to emphasize the offbeats of the sixth and seventh crotchets of bar 36 (“Living piggy lives”) repeating the syncopated accents already emphasized two bars earlier by the bass drum. Finally, the track ends with a succession of agitated grunts and snorts that fades in during the sustained final E major chord of the coda. Each of the three animal sound samples are so carefully placed that they become part of the song itself.

The track “Blackbird,” which was placed next to “Piggies” on the album, develops the use of animal sound samples even further, and the editing of the song results in the most refined use of biomusic in The Beatles’ work. In the final mix of this elegant ballad, a recording of a singing blackbird was ingeniously added to serve a distinct subordinate melodic role. The entrance of the sample in a rhythmically defined pause of the guitar accompaniment in bar 43 (1:38) is rather quiet, but it reaches full volume two bars later where it is edited to enter precisely on the first beat (supported by two simultaneous glissando upbeat notes from the guitar). From that point until the end of the track, the sequence of blackbird song functions as a countermelody to the prominent lead melody sung by Paul McCartney. Although the arrangement of the song is minimalist, incorporating only acoustic guitar, the sound of a metronome, voice (partly double-tracked), and the blackbird sample, the editing and mixing of the birdsong is sophisticated and the overall result is a texture consisting of a countermelody with guitar accompaniment.

A very short sample of blackbird song is also used in “Cry Baby Cry,” of the same album. It is added together with jingling and gurgling sounds at 1:13, accompanied by the lyric “The duchess of Kircaldy.”16 However, the birdsong is mixed into the background, and the sample is more an acoustic gimmick that adds depth to the song texture than a significant part of the song's arrangement. A bird sample might have been chosen because of its timbre, which is higher pitched than John Lennon's voice and thus particularly suited to thicken the texture by increasing the range of the musical part. However, the fact that a blackbird specifically was chosen hints at another reason for adding the animal recording. The lyrics of the song allude to the well-known English nursery rhyme “Sing a Song of Sixpence,17 in which blackbirds play a prominent role. The insertion of the blackbird sample in the mix of “Cry Baby Cry” is probably a further, albeit rather cryptic, reference to this traditional folk song.

Musique Concrète Enters Popular Culture

  1. Top of page
  2. Creation of Atmosphere
  3. Illustration of Text, and Melodic and Rhythmic Functions
  4. Musique Concrète Enters Popular Culture
  5. Conclusion
  6. Acknowledgments
  7. Works Cited
  8. Discography

The Beatles not only made innovative arrangements accessible to a popular audience, they also introduced many millions of listeners to avant-garde music. In this regard, biomusic helped to bridge the divide between pop and experimental art. In particular, the Beatles worked largely with sound samples from animals with which most European audiences were familiar, such as farm animals or common garden birds. Bird songs were also used in influential works of musique concrète, e.g., in “L´Oiseau-Chanteur” (1963) by François Bayle or “Altisonans” (1966) by Karl-Birger Blomdahl, an astonishing piece that drew together recorded bird vocalizations with sounds from space satellites and magnetic storms. However, the composers of these works never managed, nor intended, to bridge the pop–experimental divide.

The increased use of sound effects in pop music was not just a minor alteration of the production process but a vast conceptual sea change. When The Beatles added animal noises to the final mix of “Good Morning Good Morning,” they were perfectly aware that the full sound their music could no longer be performed live but only reproduced in the recording studio. This conceptual change is most evident in the case of the sound collage “Revolution 9” (1968), which has become the world's most widely distributed avant-garde artefact (MacDonald 287). By far The Beatles’ most extreme venture into experimental music, this track is genuine musique concrète. It was produced using a whole array of different tape loops that were edited and spliced together. These tape loops contained recordings from various other Beatles' recordings, in addition to excerpts from Sibelius’Symphony No. 7 and Beethoven's Choral Fantasy, as well as speech recordings and numerous other samples. Steve Turner writes that one of these samples is a recording of horse hooves hitting on asphalt. However, this is very difficult to determine because many sounds in the track's aural montage have been heavily edited, in some cases changing their acoustic characteristics beyond recognition.

Conclusion

  1. Top of page
  2. Creation of Atmosphere
  3. Illustration of Text, and Melodic and Rhythmic Functions
  4. Musique Concrète Enters Popular Culture
  5. Conclusion
  6. Acknowledgments
  7. Works Cited
  8. Discography

Animal sounds were a recurrent element in The Beatles’ music during the second half of their recording career. This change in aesthetics was made possible by technological advances, which allowed editing sound samples and fitting them precisely into the mix of a track without losing recording quality. The Beatles’ reasons for using biomusic were not only aesthetic but also philosophical. On the White Album in particular, the use of animal sounds reflects a turn to nature in general, which is most evident in tracks such as “Blackbird,”“Piggies,” and “Mother Nature's Son.” The criticism of straight society and the evocation of rural peace conveyed in these songs was strongly countercultural in spirit. Social anthropologist Jentri Anders has observed that many in the counterculture of the 1960s wished to modify children's education so that it encouraged an aesthetic appreciation for and love of nature. The advent of biomusic in popular culture at the time can be viewed as a manifestation of this dissent from the norms of society, although it would be an exaggeration to claim that The Beatles actually caused the radical change in social attitudes that occurred during the 1960s. Part of their cultural importance was to be in touch with the zeitgeist, and to give voice to the yearnings of their time and place. As the poet Allen Ginsberg phrased it, The Beatles “had, and conveyed, a realization that the world and human consciousness had to change” (quoted in Taylor 24).

After the seminal album Sgt. Peppers Lonely Hearts Club Band, the experimentation with novel sounds spread very quickly throughout popular music, and the aesthetics of the album had a massive impact on popular culture (Moore; Meltzer 285–288). The same is also true for the particular use of animal sounds: it is striking that immediately after the release of Sgt. Pepper and the White Album, many other pop groups started to use samples of animal sounds, for instance Pink Floyd on their LP Ummagumma.18 Today, the addition of animal noises to recorded songs has become common practice in popular music. Examples include Kate Bush's 2005 album Aerial, Björk's 2007 album Volta, and the latest album by U2, No Line On The Horizon; all of these incorporate samples of bird calls. An album that has taken the sampling of animal sounds to an extreme is Graeme Revell's The Insect Musicians, which was created entirely from computer-manipulated recordings of insect sounds. As I have attempted to illustrate in this article, tracing back the roots of these techniques leads us to the 1960s and to The Beatles’ pioneering work.

Acknowledgments

  1. Top of page
  2. Creation of Atmosphere
  3. Illustration of Text, and Melodic and Rhythmic Functions
  4. Musique Concrète Enters Popular Culture
  5. Conclusion
  6. Acknowledgments
  7. Works Cited
  8. Discography

I would like to thank Mathias Ritschard and Sue Anne Zollinger for discussions and an anonymous reviewer for very thoughtful comments on the manuscript. In addition, the work benefited from the helpful suggestions by Irmgard Teschke, who also commented on an earlier version of the text. And all I gotta do is thank you girl. Thank you girl (“Thank You Girl,” Lennon-McCartney).

Notes
  • 1

    The term “biomusic” is sometimes also used to refer to music created by biofeedback (e.g., the brainwaves or the heartbeat) of a human subject (Eaton; Rosenboom and Paul). Some authors use the term “biomusicology” to refer to the study of the neurobiology or evolutionary history of human music (Fitch).

  • 2

    The score mentions a specific recording, Il canto dell’usignolo (record No. 6105, Concert Record Gramophone), to be played on a gramophone during the movement “I pini del Gianicolo” (The Pines of the Janiculum).

  • 3

    For example, Pierre Schaeffer's L’Oiseau R.A.I. (1950), which is based on a short birdsong sample that is played forwards and backwards at different speeds, or James Fassett's Symphony of Birds (1955) in which the composer ambitiously layered various recordings of birdsongs and calls taken from nature.

  • 4

    The resulting novelty record became a big success and sold over half a million copies in the first year of its release (“The Caroling Dogs of Copenhagen,” LIFE Magazine).

  • 5

    The dog sample is appended after the final song of the album, “Caroline, No,” which fades into the sounds of a signal bell at a railway crossing, a passing train sounding its horn, and two barking dogs.

  • 6

    The Beatles' appreciation for Stockhausen is also reflected by the fact that they chose to portray him on the cover of their seminal album Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band.

  • 7

    In addition to the strange sounds that were developed for “Tomorrow Never Knows,” the album contains many other innovative sound effects, including the then-unique sound of a backwards guitar on the track “I’m Only Sleeping,” for which Harrison played the notes for the lead guitar, as well as for a second guitar in the solo, in reverse order, and then the tape was run backwards and copied on to the master tape. Other unusual sounds were used on the track “Yellow Submarine,” in which recordings of air bubbles blown through a straw in a bucket full of water or chains pulled through an old tin bath were spliced into the mix. First traces of this new innovative spirit are already evident on the single “Rain,” which was released eight weeks before Revolver. After a three-bar interruption by bass and drums, the closing fade of Rain is ornamented with Lennon's vocal track running backwards, which yields a mesmerizing effect, giving the illusion of the track starting over again, only in the wrong direction.

  • 8

    According to scholar Ian MacDonald (190–191), five different tape loops were used, which were based on recordings of (1) McCartney's laughter, (2) an orchestral chord of B flat major, (3) a Mellotron played on its flute setting, (4) another Mellotron oscillating from B flat to C on its string setting, and (5) a rising scalar phrase on sitar. In addition to these tape loops, the song also features a recording of McCartney's guitar solo for the track “Taxman” from the same album, which was slowed down, cut into snippets, and run backwards.

  • 9

    According to Barry Miles (320), these animal noises were taken from the EMI sound-effects tapes “Volume 35: Animals and Bees” and “Volume 57: Fox-hunt.”

  • 10

    Several sources claim that John Lennon asked engineer Geoff Emerick to arrange the animal sounds so that each successive animal is capable of devouring or frightening its predecessor (Miles 320–321; MacDonald 235, Emerick 176–179). However, the actual sequence of animals shows that this is either not true or that the engineer's knowledge of biology was faulty.

  • 11

    Although they alluded to these with later songs, e.g., “Mother Nature's Son” or “Octopus's Garden.”

  • 12

    Even on this record there are animal sounds, although no real ones. During the fade out of “Hey Bulldog” Paul McCartney and John Lennon imitate dog barking and howling with their voices.

  • 13

    See Richard Mabey for a thoughtful account of the cultural and natural history of nightingale song.

  • 14

    Although some of the audiences might be familiar with songs about nightingales and love, such as the English folksongs “Hear the Nightingale Sing” (Roud folk song index number 140),” Sweet Nightingale” (Roud number 371), or the popular standard “A Nightingale Sang in Berkeley Square” (1940) by Manning Sherwin and Eric Maschwitz.

  • 15

    The track was remixed for the album Let It Be without, however, any animal samples.

  • 16

    The actual Scottish town is spelled Kirkcaldy but on the poster accompanying the album it is spelled Kircaldy (i.e., without the letter k). There have been occasional errors with The Beatles printed song lyrics (Marshall, but see Rosenberg), and it is perhaps impossible to tell whether this is a printing mistake or a fictitious Kircaldy is intended.

  • 17

    Roud folk song index, Number 13191.

  • 18

    Pink Floyd not only adopted the use of animal sound effects on this album but also the sort of musique concrète sound collage that The Beatles used for “Revolution 9.”

Works Cited

  1. Top of page
  2. Creation of Atmosphere
  3. Illustration of Text, and Melodic and Rhythmic Functions
  4. Musique Concrète Enters Popular Culture
  5. Conclusion
  6. Acknowledgments
  7. Works Cited
  8. Discography
  • Anders, Jentri. Beyond Counterculture: The Community of Mateel. Pullman : Washington State UP, 1990.
  • Doolittle, Emily. Crickets in the Concert Hall—A History of Animals in Western Music. TRANS: Transcultural Music Review 12 (2008).
  • Eaton, Manford L. “Induce and Control: Bio-Music Is Here Today. Music Educators Journal 59 (1973): 5457.
  • Emerick, Geoff. With Howard Massey. Here, There and Everywhere: My Life Recording the Music of The Beatles. New York : Penguin Books, 2006.
  • Everett, Walter. The Beatles as Musicians: “Revolver” Through the “Anthology.” Oxford : Oxford UP, 1999.
  • Fitch, Tecumseh W. “The Biology and Evolution of Music: A Comparative Perspective. Cognition 100 (2006): 173215.
  • Galenson, David W. From ‘White Christmas’ to Sgt. Pepper: The Conceptual Revolution in Popular Music. Historical Methods 42 (2009) 1732.
  • Hertsgaard, Mark. A Day in the Life: The Music and Artistry of the Beatles. New York : Delta, 1996.
  • Lewisohn, Mark. The Complete Beatles Recording Sessions. London : Hamlyn/EMI, 1988.
  • The Caroling Dogs of Copenhagen. LIFE Magazine 39, no. 25 (1955): 9394.
  • Mabey, Richard. Whistling in the Dark: In Pursuit of the Nightingale. London : Sinclair-Stevenson, 1993.
  • MacDonald, Ian. Revolution in the Head: The Beatles’ Records and the Sixties. London : Pimlico, 2005.
  • Marshall, Geoffrey. Taking the Beatles Seriously: Problems of Text. Journal of Popular Culture 3 (1969): 2834.
    Direct Link:
  • Martin, George. With Jeremy Hornsby. All You Need Is Ears. New York : St. Martin's P, 1979.
  • Meltzer, Richard. The Aesthetics of Rock. London : Da Capo P, 1987.
  • Miles, Barry. Paul McCartney: Many Years From Now. London : Random House, 1997.
  • Moore, Allan F. The Beatles: Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band. Cambridge : Cambridge UP, 1997.
  • Palombini, Carlos. Musique Concrète Revisited. Electronic Musicological Review 4 (1999).
  • Riley, Tim. Tell Me Why: The Beatles: Album by Album, Song by Song, the Sixties and After. New York : Da Capo P, 2002.
  • Roud, Steve. Roud folk song index. Vaughan Williams Memorial Library. Available at http://library.efdss.org/cgi-bin/home.cgi. Accessed on 18 June 2011.
  • Rosenberg, Neil V. Taking Popular Culture Seriously: The Beatles. Journal of Popular Culture 4 (1970): 5356.
    Direct Link:
  • Rosenboom, David, and David Paul. “Biomusic and the Brain. Performing Arts Journal 10 (1986): 1216.
  • Taylor, Derek. It Was Twenty Years Ago Today. New York : Simon & Schuster, 1987.
  • Turner, Steve. Hard Day's Write: The Stories Behind Every Beatles Song. London : Carlton Books, 2005.
  • Wagner, Naphtali. “‘Domestication’ of Blue Notes in the Beatles’ Songs. Music Theory Spectrum 25 (2003): 35365.
  • ——. “Starting in the Middle: Auxiliary Cadences in the Beatles’ Songs. Music Analysis 25 (2006): 15569.

Discography

  1. Top of page
  2. Creation of Atmosphere
  3. Illustration of Text, and Melodic and Rhythmic Functions
  4. Musique Concrète Enters Popular Culture
  5. Conclusion
  6. Acknowledgments
  7. Works Cited
  8. Discography

The Beach Boys. Pet Sounds. Capitol, 1966: LP.

The Beatles. “Thank You Girl.” Parlophone, 1963: Single record.

——. “Rain.” Parlophone, 1966: Single record.

——. Revolver. Parlophone, 1966: LP.

——. “Strawberry Fields Forever.” Parlophone, 1967: Single record.

——. Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band. Parlophone, 1967: LP.

——. “I Am The Walrus.” Parlophone, 1967: Single record.

——. The Beatles. Apple, 1968: LP.

——-. Yellow Submarine. Apple, 1969: LP.

——-. Abbey Road. Apple, 1969: LP.

——-. Let It Be. Apple, 1970: LP.

Björk. Volta. One Little Indian, 2007: LP.

Bush, Kate. Aerial. Novercia/EMI, 2005: LP.

Day, Bobby. “Rockin’ Robin.” Vee, 1958: Single record.

Page, Patti. “(How Much Is) That Doggie in the Window?” Mercury, 1952: Single record.

Pink Floyd. Ummagamma. Harvest, 1969: LP.

Revell, Graeme. The Insect Musicians. Musique Brut, 1986: LP.

The Shangri-Las. “Remember (Walkin’ in the Sand).” Red Bird. 1964: Single record.

The Singing Dogs. “The Singing Dogs.” RCA-Victor, 1955: Single record.

U2. No Line On The Horizon. Mercury, 2009: LP

Various artists. No One's Gonna Change Our World. Regal Starline, 1969: LP.