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Many Korean immigrants in the United States have established small retail businesses in black communities. Relations between these merchants and neighborhood residents and customers have been problematic in a number of cities. Using in-depth interview data on a sample of Korean merchants in Washington, D.C., this article examines merchants' racial attitudes and reported interactions with African Americans. Drawing on middleman minority theory, I show how Koreans' middleman role and immigrant status condition their daily experiences with and attitudes toward African Americans and how constructions of group differences are used to advance middleman interests.