This study tests a hypothesis derived from an expanded theory of foreign investment dependence. The tested hypothesis states that less-developed countries with higher levels of primary sector foreign investment exhibit greater rates of deforestation. Findings for cross-national analyses of deforestation from 1990 to 2005 for 40 less-developed countries confirm the hypothesis, providing support for the proposed theorization. Additional results indicate that the presence of environmental international nongovernmental organizations is beneficial for natural forest areas, while population growth is a key driver of deforestation in less-developed countries. Besides confirming the hypothesis, this research underscores the importance for sociologists to consider both political–economic forms of integration and human-ecological factors when investigating how humans impact the environment.