Objective: The purpose of this article is to give the reader a brief overview of the indications for positive pressure ventilation (PPV).
Data sources: Current human and veterinary literature.
Summary: There are numerous indications for PPV in veterinary medicine. These include both pulmonary parenchymal disease and diseases that affect ventilation. When choosing PPV, a clinician must have a comprehensive understanding of the different ventilation mode options available and the physiologic effects of ventilation on the patient.
Conclusions: PPV is becoming more widely used in veterinary medicine and is improving the survival of animals with hypoxemic and hypercapnic respiratory failure.