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It has been known for some time that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is critical to normal development of the CNS, and more recently, studies also have documented the ability of BDNF to modify adult CNS structure and function. Therefore, it is no surprise that BDNF has been linked to diseases, such as epilepsy, which may involve abnormal cortical development or altered brain structure and function after maturity. This review evaluates the evidence, particularly from recent studies, that BDNF contributes to the development of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE).