This works explores the current phenomenon of Mexican migration and its relation to the female head of household phenomenon of rural migrant communities from a pluralistic approach to economic development. This study emphasizes the role that women can play in the development of Mexican rural communities, a region where the impact of free market policies has exacerbated the historical conditions of poverty and marginalization, and consequently, the increase of migration to the United States. The impact of women, if given the opportunities, is crucial to enhance development in the region. Women must be empowered through the provision of employment and included in the economic policy agenda.