SEN virus (SEN-V) is a blood-borne, single-stranded, nonenveloped DNA virus. Although its prevalence varies by geographic region, it has been detected in as many as 30 percent of postoperative transfusion recipients, compared to 3 percent of postoperative patients who did not receive transfusions. A significant association has been observed between transfusion volume and the occurrence of SEN-V infection. Transmission by transfusion also has been confirmed by the detection of greater than 99 percent homology between SEN-V in donor and recipient sera. Concurrent infections with SEN-V and hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, or human immunodeficiency virus type 1 have been documented, and these observations probably reflect the blood-borne transmission of these viruses as well as SEN-V. Although SEN-V was discovered as part of a search for causes of posttransfusion hepatitis, there is no firm evidence so far that SEN-V infection either causes hepatitis or worsens the course of coexistent liver disease. Nevertheless, SEN-V appears to be transmitted by transfusion, and further studies may reveal more about its role in the future.