BACKGROUND: Anti-CD36 isoantibody in blood recipients is reported to cause refractoriness to platelet (PLT) transfusions and posttransfusion purpura–like syndrome. There are few reports, however, about the effects of passively transfused blood products containing this isoantibody on recipients.
CASE REPORT: A 67-year-old Japanese woman underwent brain surgery. On the 6th postoperative day, the patient experienced tightness of the chest and nausea after receiving a transfusion of fresh frozen plasma (FFP). When she manifested hypotension, the transfusion was discontinued. No cutaneous manifestation was observed. The patient's condition gradually improved soon after the administration of steroids.
RESULTS: Her pretransfusion PLT count was 17.1 × 104 per µL. It decreased to 1.9 × 104 per µL 12 hours after transfusion and recovered to 15.4 × 104 per µL 8 days after transfusion. The donor of the FFP had a Type I CD36 deficiency. Flow cytometric analysis identified anti-CD36 isoantibody in the FFP. The cross-match between the patient's PLTs and the FFP was positive. The FFP induced the aggregation of PLTs derived from healthy adults.
CONCLUSION: This is the first reported case of life-threatening adverse effects and thrombocytopenia caused by passively transfused anti-CD36 isoantibody. The possibility of passive infusion of this antibody should be considered in the evaluation of life-threatening transfusion reactions followed by thrombocytopenia.