Prevalence of selected viral infections among blood donors deferred for potential risk to blood safety

Authors

  • Shimian Zou,

    1. From the Jerome H. Holland Laboratory, American Red Cross Blood Services, Rockville, Maryland; The Connecticut Region, American Red Cross Blood Services, Farmington, Connecticut; The New England Region, American Red Cross Blood Services, Dedham, Massachusetts; The Southern Region, American Red Cross Blood Services, Atlanta, Georgia; and The Southeastern Michigan Region, American Red Cross Blood Services, Detroit, Michigan.
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  • Karen Fujii,

    1. From the Jerome H. Holland Laboratory, American Red Cross Blood Services, Rockville, Maryland; The Connecticut Region, American Red Cross Blood Services, Farmington, Connecticut; The New England Region, American Red Cross Blood Services, Dedham, Massachusetts; The Southern Region, American Red Cross Blood Services, Atlanta, Georgia; and The Southeastern Michigan Region, American Red Cross Blood Services, Detroit, Michigan.
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  • Stephanie Johnson,

    1. From the Jerome H. Holland Laboratory, American Red Cross Blood Services, Rockville, Maryland; The Connecticut Region, American Red Cross Blood Services, Farmington, Connecticut; The New England Region, American Red Cross Blood Services, Dedham, Massachusetts; The Southern Region, American Red Cross Blood Services, Atlanta, Georgia; and The Southeastern Michigan Region, American Red Cross Blood Services, Detroit, Michigan.
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  • Bryan Spencer,

    1. From the Jerome H. Holland Laboratory, American Red Cross Blood Services, Rockville, Maryland; The Connecticut Region, American Red Cross Blood Services, Farmington, Connecticut; The New England Region, American Red Cross Blood Services, Dedham, Massachusetts; The Southern Region, American Red Cross Blood Services, Atlanta, Georgia; and The Southeastern Michigan Region, American Red Cross Blood Services, Detroit, Michigan.
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  • Nicole Washington,

    1. From the Jerome H. Holland Laboratory, American Red Cross Blood Services, Rockville, Maryland; The Connecticut Region, American Red Cross Blood Services, Farmington, Connecticut; The New England Region, American Red Cross Blood Services, Dedham, Massachusetts; The Southern Region, American Red Cross Blood Services, Atlanta, Georgia; and The Southeastern Michigan Region, American Red Cross Blood Services, Detroit, Michigan.
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  • Edward Notari Iv,

    1. From the Jerome H. Holland Laboratory, American Red Cross Blood Services, Rockville, Maryland; The Connecticut Region, American Red Cross Blood Services, Farmington, Connecticut; The New England Region, American Red Cross Blood Services, Dedham, Massachusetts; The Southern Region, American Red Cross Blood Services, Atlanta, Georgia; and The Southeastern Michigan Region, American Red Cross Blood Services, Detroit, Michigan.
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  • Fatemeh Musavi,

    1. From the Jerome H. Holland Laboratory, American Red Cross Blood Services, Rockville, Maryland; The Connecticut Region, American Red Cross Blood Services, Farmington, Connecticut; The New England Region, American Red Cross Blood Services, Dedham, Massachusetts; The Southern Region, American Red Cross Blood Services, Atlanta, Georgia; and The Southeastern Michigan Region, American Red Cross Blood Services, Detroit, Michigan.
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  • Bruce Newman,

    1. From the Jerome H. Holland Laboratory, American Red Cross Blood Services, Rockville, Maryland; The Connecticut Region, American Red Cross Blood Services, Farmington, Connecticut; The New England Region, American Red Cross Blood Services, Dedham, Massachusetts; The Southern Region, American Red Cross Blood Services, Atlanta, Georgia; and The Southeastern Michigan Region, American Red Cross Blood Services, Detroit, Michigan.
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  • Ritchard Cable,

    1. From the Jerome H. Holland Laboratory, American Red Cross Blood Services, Rockville, Maryland; The Connecticut Region, American Red Cross Blood Services, Farmington, Connecticut; The New England Region, American Red Cross Blood Services, Dedham, Massachusetts; The Southern Region, American Red Cross Blood Services, Atlanta, Georgia; and The Southeastern Michigan Region, American Red Cross Blood Services, Detroit, Michigan.
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  • Jorge Rios,

    1. From the Jerome H. Holland Laboratory, American Red Cross Blood Services, Rockville, Maryland; The Connecticut Region, American Red Cross Blood Services, Farmington, Connecticut; The New England Region, American Red Cross Blood Services, Dedham, Massachusetts; The Southern Region, American Red Cross Blood Services, Atlanta, Georgia; and The Southeastern Michigan Region, American Red Cross Blood Services, Detroit, Michigan.
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  • Krista L. Hillyer,

    1. From the Jerome H. Holland Laboratory, American Red Cross Blood Services, Rockville, Maryland; The Connecticut Region, American Red Cross Blood Services, Farmington, Connecticut; The New England Region, American Red Cross Blood Services, Dedham, Massachusetts; The Southern Region, American Red Cross Blood Services, Atlanta, Georgia; and The Southeastern Michigan Region, American Red Cross Blood Services, Detroit, Michigan.
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  • Christopher D. Hillyer,

    1. From the Jerome H. Holland Laboratory, American Red Cross Blood Services, Rockville, Maryland; The Connecticut Region, American Red Cross Blood Services, Farmington, Connecticut; The New England Region, American Red Cross Blood Services, Dedham, Massachusetts; The Southern Region, American Red Cross Blood Services, Atlanta, Georgia; and The Southeastern Michigan Region, American Red Cross Blood Services, Detroit, Michigan.
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  • Roger Y. Dodd,

    1. From the Jerome H. Holland Laboratory, American Red Cross Blood Services, Rockville, Maryland; The Connecticut Region, American Red Cross Blood Services, Farmington, Connecticut; The New England Region, American Red Cross Blood Services, Dedham, Massachusetts; The Southern Region, American Red Cross Blood Services, Atlanta, Georgia; and The Southeastern Michigan Region, American Red Cross Blood Services, Detroit, Michigan.
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  • ARCNET Study Group

    1. From the Jerome H. Holland Laboratory, American Red Cross Blood Services, Rockville, Maryland; The Connecticut Region, American Red Cross Blood Services, Farmington, Connecticut; The New England Region, American Red Cross Blood Services, Dedham, Massachusetts; The Southern Region, American Red Cross Blood Services, Atlanta, Georgia; and The Southeastern Michigan Region, American Red Cross Blood Services, Detroit, Michigan.
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Shimian Zou, PhD, Transmissible Diseases Department, American Red Cross Blood Services, 15601 Crabbs Branch Way, Rockville, MD 20855; e-mail: zous@usa.redcross.org.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Health history questions identify blood donors believed to pose a higher risk of transmission of infectious diseases. This study assesses the current impact of some of these questions on blood safety as reflected by infectious disease markers.

STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Donors who were deferred from donating blood due to health history question(s) were recruited at four different regions of the American Red Cross Blood Services. A blood sample was tested for serologic markers of blood-borne infections as performed for accepted blood donors.

RESULTS: Of 497 deferred donors enrolled, 29 donors were deferred for having had “yellow jaundice, liver disease, or hepatitis since the age of 11” (Question 3), 1 of whom had hepatitis C virus antibodies (anti-HCV) and hepatitis B core antigen antibodies (anti-HBc), 2 had anti-HBc, and 1 had anti-HCV (p < 0.05 for both markers). Among 37 donors deferred for having “ever tested positive for hepatitis” (Question 4), 1 had hepatitis B surface antigen and anti-HBc and 3 had anti-HBc (p < 0.05 for both markers). Of 14 donors deferred for “having ever used a needle, even once, to take any illegal or nonprescription drug” (Question 12), 1 had anti-HCV, human T-lymphotropic virus-I antibodies and anti-HBc, 1 had anti-HCV and anti-HBc, and 2 had anti-HCV (p < 0.05 for all three markers).

CONCLUSIONS: Blood donors deferred for standard blood donor questions regarding risk of viral hepatitis as well as those with a history of intravenous drug use were more likely to have higher hepatitis marker rates than those who were not deferred. No significant findings were identified for other markers or questions.

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