Tranexamic acid reduces blood transfusion in total knee arthroplasty even when a blood conservation program is applied
Article first published online: 7 DEC 2007
2008 American Association of Blood Banks
Volume 48, Issue 3, pages 519–525, March 2008
How to Cite
Álvarez, J. C., Santiveri, F. X., Ramos, I., Vela, E., Puig, L. and Escolano, F. (2008), Tranexamic acid reduces blood transfusion in total knee arthroplasty even when a blood conservation program is applied. Transfusion, 48: 519–525. doi: 10.1111/j.1537-2995.2007.01564.x
- Issue published online: 7 DEC 2007
- Article first published online: 7 DEC 2007
- Received for publication June 7, 2007; revision received September 4, 2007, and accepted September 5, 2007.
BACKGROUND: In total knee arthroplasty surgery, a blood conservation program is applied as a normal clinical practice to avoid allogenic transfusions. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of tranexamic acid to reduce transfusions in total knee replacement even when a blood conservation program is applied.
STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: In a double-blind prospective study the patients scheduled for total knee arthroplasty were included in a well-established blood conservation program and then randomly assigned into two groups: In tranexamic acid group, 10 mg per kg ev bolus followed by 1 mg per kg per hour perfusion was administered, while in the control group, saline was given matching the protocol.
RESULTS: Ninety-five patients were included (tranexamic acid group, 46; control group, 49). Thirty-three patients (34.7%) underwent preoperative procedures to reduce transfusions: presurgical autologous blood donation (12), recombinant erythropoietin (6), and elementary iron (15); postoperative drain for reinfusion was allocated in all the cases. Total blood loss on the fourth postoperative day was [mean (±SD)] 1744 (±804) mL in controls compared with 1301 (±621) mL in the tranexamic acid group (p < 0.05). Eleven units of blood were transfused (6 patients) in the control group versus one in the tranexamic acid group (p < 0.05). Only 2 patients (4%) in the tranexamic acid group received reinfusion of blood recovered by drains compared with 36 (73%) in the control group (p < 0.0001). No thromboembolic complications were detected.
CONCLUSION: Tranexamic acid reduces blood losses and transfusion requirements even when a blood conservation program was used and it questions the usefulness of the postoperative reinfusion drains.