BACKGROUND: Annexin V binding to platelets (PLTs) is considered the gold standard for monitoring phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure. However, recent comparison of annexin V with the new calcium-independent PS probe lactadherin revealed that annexin V requires a certain threshold of PS exposure (2%-8%) for binding to occur. The aim of this study was to compare annexin V and lactadherin labeling of PLTs in PLT concentrates (PCs).
STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Optimal labeling conditions for lactadherin and annexin V were established and then compared in either resting or calcium ionophore (CI)-activated PLTs from normal whole blood. Furthermore, 40 PCs (20 apheresis-derived and 20 pooled buffy coat–derived) were stored under standard blood bank conditions and PLT activation was monitored by measuring PS exposure with annexin V and lactadherin along with CD42b, CD61, and CD62P by flow cytometry on Days 1, 3, 5, and 7.
RESULTS: Lactadherin reported a higher exposure of PS than did annexin V in normal PLTs at submaximal doses of CI. PLTs from both types of concentrate, as expected, demonstrated evidence of increased activation during storage using annexin V, lactadherin, CD42b, or CD62P. However, a significantly higher percentage of PS-positive PLTs was found with lactadherin than annexin V.
CONCLUSION: PS exposure on the surface of stored PLTs has been previously underestimated due to the wide use of annexin V. Lactadherin provides a truer reflection of the degree of PS exposure and offers a new calcium-independent approach to studying PLT activation and/or apoptosis.