• 1
    Hardaway RM, McKay DG. The syndromes of disseminated intravascular coagulation. Rev Surg 1963;20:297-328.
  • 2
    Innes D, Sevitt S. Coagulation and fibrinolysis in injured patients. J Clin Pathol 1964;17:1-13.
  • 3
    Hardaway RM 3rd. The significance of coagulative and thrombotic changes after injury. Trauma 1970;10:354-7.
  • 4
    Simmons RL, Collins JA, Heisterkamp CA, Mills DE, Andren R, Phillips LL. Coagulation disorders in combat casualties. I. Acute changes after wounding. II. Effects of massive transfusion. 3. Post-resuscitative changes. Ann Surg 1969;169:455-82.
  • 5
    Collins JA, Simmons RL, James PM, Bredenberg CE, Anderson RW, Heisterkamp CA 3rd. Acid-base status of seriously wounded combat casualties. II. Resuscitation with stored blood. Ann Surg 1971;173:6-18.
  • 6
    Collins JA, James PM, Bredenberg CE, Anderson RW, Heisterkamp CA, Simmons RL. The relationship between transfusion and hypoxemia in combat casualties. Ann Surg 1978;188:513-20.
  • 7
    Josey WE, Patterson WM, Wood HE, Jennings CL Jr. Hypofibrinogenemia and presumptive amniotic fluid embolism associated with rupture of the uterus. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1961;82:172-6.
  • 8
    Fox CL Jr, Holder IA, Malin LL. Toxic thromboplastic extracts of skin, potential role in thermal injury. JAMA 1964;187:655-8.
  • 9
    Bradford DS, Foster RR, Nossel HL. Coagulation alterations, hypoxemia, and fat embolism in fracture patients. J Trauma 1970;10:307-21.
  • 10
    Vaisrub S. Covert consumption coagulopathy—a call to vigilance. JAMA 1973;224:1523.
  • 11
    Keimowitz RM, Annis BL. Disseminated intravascular coagulation associated with massive brain injury. J Neurosurg 1973;39:178-80.
  • 12
    Hess JR, Lawson JH. The coagulopathy of trauma versus disseminated intravascular coagulation. J Trauma 2006;60 6 Suppl:S12-9.
  • 13
    Cosgriff N, Moore EE, Sauaia A, Kenny-Moynihan M, Burch JM, Galloway B. Predicting life-threatening coagulopathy in the massively transfused trauma patient: hypothermia and acidosis revisited. J Trauma 1997;42:857-61.
  • 14
    MacLeod JB, Lynn M, McKenney MG, Cohn SM, Murtha M. Early coagulopathy predicts mortality in trauma. J Trauma 2003;55:39-44.
  • 15
    Brohi K, Singh J, Heron M, Coats T. Acute traumatic coagulopathy. J Trauma 2003;54:1127-30.
  • 16
    Hewitt PE, Machin SJ. Massive blood transfusion. In: ContrerasM, editor. ABC of transfusion. London: BMJ Publishing Group; 1992. p. 38-40.
  • 17
    College of American Pathologists. Practice parameters for the use of fresh frozen plasma, cryoprecipitate and platelets. JAMA 1994;271:777-81.
  • 18
    Baker SP, O'Neill B, Haddon W, Long WB. The injury severity score: a method for describing patients with multiple injuries and evaluating emergency care. J Trauma 1974;14:187-96.
  • 19
    Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine. The Abbreviated Injury Scale, 1990 Revision. Des Plaines (IL): Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine; 1990.
  • 20
    Expert Committee on Biological Standardization. Requirements for thromboplastins and plasma used to control oral anticoagulant therapy. World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser 1983;33:81-105.
  • 21
    Olson JD, Kaufman HH, Moake J, O'Gorman TW, Hoots K, Wagner K, Brown CK, Gildenberg PL. The incidence and significance of hemostatic abnormalities in patients with head injuries. Neurosurgery 1989;24:825-32.
  • 22
    Hulka F, Mullins RJ, Frank EH. Blunt brain injury activates the coagulation process. Arch Surg 1996;131: 923-7.