Detection of blood-transmissible agents: can screening be miniaturized?
Article first published online: 7 JUN 2010
© 2010 American Association of Blood Banks
Volume 50, Issue 9, pages 2032–2045, September 2010
How to Cite
Fournier-Wirth, C., Jaffrezic-Renault, N. and Coste, J. (2010), Detection of blood-transmissible agents: can screening be miniaturized?. Transfusion, 50: 2032–2045. doi: 10.1111/j.1537-2995.2010.02678.x
- Issue published online: 1 SEP 2010
- Article first published online: 7 JUN 2010
- Received for publication June 12, 2009; revision received December 9, 2009, and accepted February 20, 2010.
Transfusion safety relating to blood-transmissible agents is a major public health concern, particularly when faced with the continuing emergence of new infectious agents. These include new viruses appearing alongside other known reemerging viruses (West Nile virus, Chikungunya) as well as new strains of bacteria and parasites (Plasmodium falciparum, Trypanosoma cruzi) and finally pathologic prion protein (variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease). Genomic mutations of known viruses (hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, human immunodeficiency virus) can also be at the origin of variants susceptible to escaping detection by diagnostic tests. New technologies that would allow the simultaneous detection of several blood-transmissible agents are now needed for the development and improvement of screening strategies. DNA microarrays have been developed for use in immunohematology laboratories for blood group genotyping. Their application in the detection of infectious agents, however, has been hindered by additional technological hurdles. For instance, the variability among and within genomes of interest complicate target amplification and multiplex analysis. Advances in biosensor technologies based on alternative detection strategies have offered new perspectives on pathogen detection; however, whether they are adaptable to diagnostic applications testing biologic fluids is under debate. Elsewhere, current nanotechnologies now offer new tools to improve the sample preparation, target capture, and detection steps. Second-generation devices combining micro- and nanotechnologies have brought us one step closer to the potential development of innovative and multiplexed approaches applicable to the screening of blood for transmissible agents.