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BACKGROUND: In a previous study of 66 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected US blood donors from 1999 to 2005, HIV-1 non-B and antiretroviral drug–resistant strains accounted for 4.7 and 6.5% of HIV infections, respectively. This study was expanded to include an additional 11 recently acquired infections and 197 established infections collected from January 2005 through December 2007.

STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: HIV-infected donors were detected using FDA-licensed assays. Drug resistance profiles for protease and reverse transcriptase (RT) genes were determined using a genotyping system (ViroSeq, Celera Diagnostics); genetic subtype was determined by phylogenetic analysis of these sequences.

RESULTS: Drug resistance profiles were obtained for 203 of 208 specimens; 9.9% had mutations that confer drug resistance. Ten showed resistance to a single drug class: nine to nonnucleoside RT inhibitors (NNRTIs) and one to nucleoside RT inhibitors (NRTIs). Eight showed two drug class resistance: five NRTI plus NNRTI, two NRTI plus protease inhibitor (PI), and one NNRTI plus PI. Two showed three drug class resistance. Non-B strains were identified in 2.5% of donors and consisted of subtypes A1 and D, CRF02_AG, CRF43-02G, and URF_BF.

CONCLUSIONS: Data from this and the previous study show that antiretroviral drug–resistant HIV-1 is present in 9.1% of HIV-infected donors from 1999 through 2007; 9.3% of established infections and 6.9% of recent infections. Diverse HIV-1 non-B strains presently account for 3.0% of HIV infections in US donors.