Absence of detectable xenotropic murine leukemia virus–related virus in plasma or peripheral blood mononuclear cells of human immunodeficiency virus Type 1–infected blood donors or individuals in Africa

Authors

  • Shixing Tang,

    1. From the Laboratory of Molecular Virology, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, Maryland; the Department of Pathology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York; and the Division of Intramural Research, NIAID, NIH, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.
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  • Jiangqin Zhao,

    1. From the Laboratory of Molecular Virology, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, Maryland; the Department of Pathology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York; and the Division of Intramural Research, NIAID, NIH, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.
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  • Ragupathy Viswanath,

    1. From the Laboratory of Molecular Virology, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, Maryland; the Department of Pathology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York; and the Division of Intramural Research, NIAID, NIH, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.
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  • Phillipe N. Nyambi,

    1. From the Laboratory of Molecular Virology, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, Maryland; the Department of Pathology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York; and the Division of Intramural Research, NIAID, NIH, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.
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  • Andrew D. Redd,

    1. From the Laboratory of Molecular Virology, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, Maryland; the Department of Pathology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York; and the Division of Intramural Research, NIAID, NIH, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.
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  • Armeta Dastyar,

    1. From the Laboratory of Molecular Virology, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, Maryland; the Department of Pathology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York; and the Division of Intramural Research, NIAID, NIH, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.
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  • Lisa A. Spacek,

    1. From the Laboratory of Molecular Virology, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, Maryland; the Department of Pathology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York; and the Division of Intramural Research, NIAID, NIH, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.
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  • Thomas C. Quinn,

    1. From the Laboratory of Molecular Virology, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, Maryland; the Department of Pathology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York; and the Division of Intramural Research, NIAID, NIH, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.
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  • Xue Wang,

    1. From the Laboratory of Molecular Virology, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, Maryland; the Department of Pathology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York; and the Division of Intramural Research, NIAID, NIH, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.
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  • Owen Wood,

    1. From the Laboratory of Molecular Virology, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, Maryland; the Department of Pathology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York; and the Division of Intramural Research, NIAID, NIH, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.
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  • Durga Gaddam,

    1. From the Laboratory of Molecular Virology, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, Maryland; the Department of Pathology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York; and the Division of Intramural Research, NIAID, NIH, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.
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  • Krishnakumar Devadas,

    1. From the Laboratory of Molecular Virology, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, Maryland; the Department of Pathology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York; and the Division of Intramural Research, NIAID, NIH, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.
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  • Indira K. Hewlett

    1. From the Laboratory of Molecular Virology, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, Maryland; the Department of Pathology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York; and the Division of Intramural Research, NIAID, NIH, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.
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  • This work was supported in part by Division of Intramural Research, NIAID, NIH.

  • The findings and conclusions in this article have not been formally disseminated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and should not be construed to represent any Agency determination or policy.

Shixing Tang, MD, PhD, or Indira K. Hewlett, PhD, Laboratory of Molecular Virology, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 1401 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20892; e-mail: shixing.tang@fda.hhs.gov; indira.hewlett@fda.hhs.gov.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Since the identification of xenotropic murine leukemia virus–related virus (XMRV) in prostate cancer patients in 2006 and in chronic fatigue syndrome patients in 2009, conflicting findings have been reported regarding its etiologic role in human diseases and prevalence in general populations. In this study, we screened both plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) collected in Africa from blood donors and human immunodeficiency virus Type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals to gain evidence of XMRV infection in this geographic region.

STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 199 plasma samples, 19 PBMNC samples, and 50 culture supernatants from PBMNCs of blood donors from Cameroon found to be infected with HIV-1 and HIV-1 patients from Uganda were screened for XMRV infection using a sensitive nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assay.

RESULTS: Using highly sensitive nested PCR or RT-PCR and real-time PCR assays capable of detecting at least 10 copies of XMRV plasmid DNA per reaction, none of the 268 samples tested were found to be XMRV DNA or RNA positive.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results failed to demonstrate the presence of XMRV infection in African blood donors or individuals infected with HIV-1. More studies are needed to understand the prevalence, epidemiology, and geographic distribution of XMRV infection worldwide.

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