Get access

Major depression and generalized anxiety disorder among human T-lymphotropic virus Types I– and II–infected former blood donors

Authors

  • Anne M. Guiltinan,

    Corresponding author
    1. From the Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, California; the American Red Cross Blood Services, Greater Chesapeake and Potomac Region, Baltimore, Maryland; the American Red Cross Blood Services, SE Michigan Region, Detroit, Michigan; the American Red Cross Blood Services, Southern California Region, Pomona, California; the Oklahoma Blood Institute, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma; and the University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California.
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Zhanna Kaidarova,

    1. From the Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, California; the American Red Cross Blood Services, Greater Chesapeake and Potomac Region, Baltimore, Maryland; the American Red Cross Blood Services, SE Michigan Region, Detroit, Michigan; the American Red Cross Blood Services, Southern California Region, Pomona, California; the Oklahoma Blood Institute, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma; and the University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California.
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Dee Behan,

    1. From the Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, California; the American Red Cross Blood Services, Greater Chesapeake and Potomac Region, Baltimore, Maryland; the American Red Cross Blood Services, SE Michigan Region, Detroit, Michigan; the American Red Cross Blood Services, Southern California Region, Pomona, California; the Oklahoma Blood Institute, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma; and the University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California.
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Cheryl Marosi,

    1. From the Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, California; the American Red Cross Blood Services, Greater Chesapeake and Potomac Region, Baltimore, Maryland; the American Red Cross Blood Services, SE Michigan Region, Detroit, Michigan; the American Red Cross Blood Services, Southern California Region, Pomona, California; the Oklahoma Blood Institute, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma; and the University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California.
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Sheila Hutching,

    1. From the Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, California; the American Red Cross Blood Services, Greater Chesapeake and Potomac Region, Baltimore, Maryland; the American Red Cross Blood Services, SE Michigan Region, Detroit, Michigan; the American Red Cross Blood Services, Southern California Region, Pomona, California; the Oklahoma Blood Institute, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma; and the University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California.
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Mandi Kaiser,

    1. From the Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, California; the American Red Cross Blood Services, Greater Chesapeake and Potomac Region, Baltimore, Maryland; the American Red Cross Blood Services, SE Michigan Region, Detroit, Michigan; the American Red Cross Blood Services, Southern California Region, Pomona, California; the Oklahoma Blood Institute, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma; and the University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California.
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Elane Moore,

    1. From the Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, California; the American Red Cross Blood Services, Greater Chesapeake and Potomac Region, Baltimore, Maryland; the American Red Cross Blood Services, SE Michigan Region, Detroit, Michigan; the American Red Cross Blood Services, Southern California Region, Pomona, California; the Oklahoma Blood Institute, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma; and the University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California.
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Deborah DeVita,

    1. From the Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, California; the American Red Cross Blood Services, Greater Chesapeake and Potomac Region, Baltimore, Maryland; the American Red Cross Blood Services, SE Michigan Region, Detroit, Michigan; the American Red Cross Blood Services, Southern California Region, Pomona, California; the Oklahoma Blood Institute, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma; and the University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California.
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Edward L. Murphy,

    1. From the Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, California; the American Red Cross Blood Services, Greater Chesapeake and Potomac Region, Baltimore, Maryland; the American Red Cross Blood Services, SE Michigan Region, Detroit, Michigan; the American Red Cross Blood Services, Southern California Region, Pomona, California; the Oklahoma Blood Institute, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma; and the University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California.
    Search for more papers by this author
  • for the HTLV Outcomes Study (HOST)


  • See the Appendix for HOST Investigators.

  • This work was supported by National Institutes of Health (2R01-HL-62235 and K24-HL-75036) and by Blood Systems Research Institute.

Anne M. Guiltinan, MA, LMFT, Blood Systems Research Institute, 270 Masonic Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94118; e-mail: aguiltinan@bloodsystems.org.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Other studies have reported high rates of depression and anxiety among human T-lymphotropic virus Type I (HTLV-I)-infected subjects and have even suggested that HTLV-I causes psychiatric disease.

STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We interviewed HTLV-I, HTLV-II, and demographically similar HTLV-seronegative blood donors with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Prevalences of major depression and generalized anxiety disorder in each group were calculated and compared to published US population data. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) controlling for educational achievement, alcohol intake, and self-reported health status were calculated with multivariate logistic regression.

RESULTS: Major depression was diagnosed in five (5.4%) of 93 HTLV-I–positive subjects (aOR, 2.19; 95% CI, 0.63-7.55) and 17 (6.6%) of 256 HTLV-II–positive subjects (aOR, 1.61; 95% CI, 0.66-3.927), compared to 12 (2.1%) of 585 HTLV-seronegative blood donors. The prevalence of major depression among infected subjects was comparable to the 6.7% prevalence in the US general population. Generalized anxiety disorder was diagnosed in five (5.4%) HTLV-I–positive subjects (OR, 2.32; 95% CI, 0.74-7.26) and 12 (4.7%) HTLV-II–positive subjects (OR, 1.65; 95% CI, 0.68-4.01), compared to 15 (2.6%) seronegative subjects and 3.1% in the US general population.

CONCLUSION: Major depression and generalized anxiety disorder were not significantly more prevalent among HTLV-I– and HTLV-II–infected former blood donors after controlling for health status and other confounding variables. HTLV-seronegative blood donors had lower prevalences of these conditions than the US population, probably due to a “healthy blood donor effect.”

Ancillary