Supported by grants from the Swedish Research Council (2010-4286; PAO), the Faculty of Medicine, Umeå University, a Young Researcher Award from Umeå University (PAO), the World Anti Doping Agency (08C06CM; CM), Vinnova (2009-00462; CM), and Innovationsbron Umeå (2008; CM).
Transfusion of cryopreserved human red blood cells into healthy humans is associated with rapid extravascular hemolysis without a proinflammatory cytokine response
Article first published online: 21 MAY 2012
© 2012 American Association of Blood Banks
Volume 53, Issue 1, pages 28–33, January 2013
How to Cite
Hult, A., Malm, C. and Oldenborg, P.-A. (2013), Transfusion of cryopreserved human red blood cells into healthy humans is associated with rapid extravascular hemolysis without a proinflammatory cytokine response. Transfusion, 53: 28–33. doi: 10.1111/j.1537-2995.2012.03710.x
- Issue published online: 8 JAN 2013
- Article first published online: 21 MAY 2012
- Received for publication December 21, 2011; revision received March 30, 2012, and accepted April 4, 2012.
BACKGROUND: Transfusion of stored red blood cells (RBCs) can be associated with adverse side effects. Recent studies in mice transfused with stored RBCs showed that a strong proinflammatory cytokine storm was induced due to extravascular hemolysis already at 2 hours after transfusion. Therefore, we here investigated if transfusion of 2 units of cryopreserved autologous RBCs induced a proinflammatory response in healthy human volunteers.
STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Two units of autologous RBCs, cryopreserved for 16 weeks, were transfused into 10 healthy human volunteers. Serum and blood samples taken at 2 hours before and at 2 and 48 hours after transfusion were analyzed for signs of extravascular hemolysis and the presence of proinflammatory cytokines.
RESULTS: At 2 hours after transfusion, transferin-bound serum iron, as well as transferin saturation and total bilirubin, were already significantly increased. These measures all returned back toward that in pretransfusion samples at 48 hours after transfusion. No increases in the production of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, macrophage inflammatory protein-1β, or tumor necrosis factor-α were detected at any time point after transfusion.
CONCLUSION: Although a significant level of extravascular hemolysis already occurred at 2 hours after transfusion of cryopreserved RBCs, there were no signs of proinflammatory cytokine production up to 48 hours after transfusion.