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Motivation and social capital among prospective blood donors in three large blood centers in Brazil

Authors

  • Thelma T. Gonçalez,

    Corresponding author
    1. From the Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, California; the Universidade Federal de São João del-Rei, Minas Gerais, Brazil; the Fundação Hemominas, Minas Gerais, Brazil; Westat, Rockville, Maryland; the Fundação HEMOPE, Recife, Brazil; the Fundação Pró-Sangue Hemocentro de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; and the Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
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  • Claudia Di Lorenzo Oliveira,

    1. From the Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, California; the Universidade Federal de São João del-Rei, Minas Gerais, Brazil; the Fundação Hemominas, Minas Gerais, Brazil; Westat, Rockville, Maryland; the Fundação HEMOPE, Recife, Brazil; the Fundação Pró-Sangue Hemocentro de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; and the Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
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  • Anna Barbara F. Carneiro-Proietti,

    1. From the Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, California; the Universidade Federal de São João del-Rei, Minas Gerais, Brazil; the Fundação Hemominas, Minas Gerais, Brazil; Westat, Rockville, Maryland; the Fundação HEMOPE, Recife, Brazil; the Fundação Pró-Sangue Hemocentro de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; and the Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
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  • Elizabeth C. Moreno,

    1. From the Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, California; the Universidade Federal de São João del-Rei, Minas Gerais, Brazil; the Fundação Hemominas, Minas Gerais, Brazil; Westat, Rockville, Maryland; the Fundação HEMOPE, Recife, Brazil; the Fundação Pró-Sangue Hemocentro de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; and the Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
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  • Carolina Miranda,

    1. From the Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, California; the Universidade Federal de São João del-Rei, Minas Gerais, Brazil; the Fundação Hemominas, Minas Gerais, Brazil; Westat, Rockville, Maryland; the Fundação HEMOPE, Recife, Brazil; the Fundação Pró-Sangue Hemocentro de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; and the Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
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  • Nina Larsen,

    1. From the Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, California; the Universidade Federal de São João del-Rei, Minas Gerais, Brazil; the Fundação Hemominas, Minas Gerais, Brazil; Westat, Rockville, Maryland; the Fundação HEMOPE, Recife, Brazil; the Fundação Pró-Sangue Hemocentro de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; and the Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
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  • David Wright,

    1. From the Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, California; the Universidade Federal de São João del-Rei, Minas Gerais, Brazil; the Fundação Hemominas, Minas Gerais, Brazil; Westat, Rockville, Maryland; the Fundação HEMOPE, Recife, Brazil; the Fundação Pró-Sangue Hemocentro de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; and the Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
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  • Silvana Leão,

    1. From the Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, California; the Universidade Federal de São João del-Rei, Minas Gerais, Brazil; the Fundação Hemominas, Minas Gerais, Brazil; Westat, Rockville, Maryland; the Fundação HEMOPE, Recife, Brazil; the Fundação Pró-Sangue Hemocentro de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; and the Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
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  • Paula Loureiro,

    1. From the Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, California; the Universidade Federal de São João del-Rei, Minas Gerais, Brazil; the Fundação Hemominas, Minas Gerais, Brazil; Westat, Rockville, Maryland; the Fundação HEMOPE, Recife, Brazil; the Fundação Pró-Sangue Hemocentro de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; and the Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
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  • Cesar de Almeida-Neto,

    1. From the Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, California; the Universidade Federal de São João del-Rei, Minas Gerais, Brazil; the Fundação Hemominas, Minas Gerais, Brazil; Westat, Rockville, Maryland; the Fundação HEMOPE, Recife, Brazil; the Fundação Pró-Sangue Hemocentro de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; and the Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
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  • Maria-Inês Lopes,

    1. From the Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, California; the Universidade Federal de São João del-Rei, Minas Gerais, Brazil; the Fundação Hemominas, Minas Gerais, Brazil; Westat, Rockville, Maryland; the Fundação HEMOPE, Recife, Brazil; the Fundação Pró-Sangue Hemocentro de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; and the Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
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  • Fernando A. Proietti,

    1. From the Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, California; the Universidade Federal de São João del-Rei, Minas Gerais, Brazil; the Fundação Hemominas, Minas Gerais, Brazil; Westat, Rockville, Maryland; the Fundação HEMOPE, Recife, Brazil; the Fundação Pró-Sangue Hemocentro de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; and the Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
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  • Brian Custer,

    1. From the Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, California; the Universidade Federal de São João del-Rei, Minas Gerais, Brazil; the Fundação Hemominas, Minas Gerais, Brazil; Westat, Rockville, Maryland; the Fundação HEMOPE, Recife, Brazil; the Fundação Pró-Sangue Hemocentro de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; and the Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
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  • Ester Sabino,

    1. From the Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, California; the Universidade Federal de São João del-Rei, Minas Gerais, Brazil; the Fundação Hemominas, Minas Gerais, Brazil; Westat, Rockville, Maryland; the Fundação HEMOPE, Recife, Brazil; the Fundação Pró-Sangue Hemocentro de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; and the Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
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  • and for the NHLBI Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study-II (REDS-II), International Component


Thelma T. Gonçalez, Department of Epidemiology, Blood Systems Research Institute, 270, Masonic Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94118; e-mail: tgoncalez@bloodsystems.org.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Studies analyzing motivation factors that lead to blood donation have found altruism to be the primary motivation factor; however, social capital has not been analyzed in this context. Our study examines the association between motivation factors (altruism, self-interest, and response to direct appeal) and social capital (cognitive and structural) across three large blood centers in Brazil.

STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 7635 donor candidates from October 15 through November 20, 2009. Participants completed self-administered questionnaires on demographics, previous blood donation, human immunodeficiency virus testing and knowledge, social capital, and donor motivations. Enrollment was determined before the donor screening process.

RESULTS: Among participants, 43.5 and 41.7% expressed high levels of altruism and response to direct appeal, respectively, while only 26.9% expressed high levels of self-interest. More high self-interest was observed at Hemope-Recife (41.7%). Of participants, 37.4% expressed high levels of cognitive social capital while 19.2% expressed high levels of structural social capital. More high cognitive and structural social capital was observed at Hemope-Recife (47.3 and 21.3%, respectively). High cognitive social capital was associated with high levels of altruism, self-interest, and response to direct appeal. Philanthropic and high social altruism were associated with high levels of altruism and response to direct appeal.

CONCLUSION: Cognitive and structural social capital and social altruism are associated with altruism and response to direct appeal, while only cognitive social capital is associated with self-interest. Designing marketing campaigns with these aspects in mind may help blood banks attract potential blood donors more efficiently.

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