Formation of tissue factor–factor VIIa–factor Xa complex promotes cellular signaling and migration of human breast cancer cells


Michael E. Bromberg, Temple University School of Medicine, Sol Sherry Thrombosis Research Center, 3400 North Broad Street, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA.
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Summary.  Tissue factor (TF) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that initiates blood coagulation when complexed with factor (F)VIIa. Recently, TF has been shown to promote cellular signaling, tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis. In the present study, we examined the pathway by which TF–FVIIa complex induces cellular signaling in human breast cancer cells using the Adr-MCF-7 cell line. This cell line has high endogenous TF expression as measured by flow cytometry and expression of protease-activated receptors 1 and 2 (PAR1 and PAR2) as determined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis. Both PAR1 and PAR2 are functionally active as determined by induction of p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation using specific agonist peptides. We found that MAPK phosphorylation in this cell line was strongly induced by the combination of FVIIa and factor (F)X, but not by FVIIa alone at a concentration of FVIIa that approaches physiological levels. Induction of MAPK phosphorylation involved the formation of TF–FVIIa–FXa complex and occurred by a pathway that did not require thrombin formation, indicating a critical role for FXa generation. In addition, induction of MAPK phosphorylation was found to be independent of PAR1 activation. We then examined whether TF–FVIIa complex formation could promote tumor cell migration using a modified Boyden chamber chemotaxis assay. The combination of FVIIa and FX, but not FVIIa alone, strongly induced migration of tumor cells by a pathway that probably involves PAR2, but not PAR1 activation. MAPK phosphorylation was found to be required for the induction of cell migration by the combination of FVIIa and FX. These data suggest that TF–FVIIa-mediated signaling in human breast cancer cells occurs most efficiently by formation of the TF–FVIIa–FXa complex. One of the physiological consequences of this signaling pathway is enhanced cell migration that is probably mediated by PAR2, but not PAR1 activation.