SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    White RH. The epidemiology of venous thromboembolism. Circulation 2003; 107 (Suppl. I): I4–I-8.
  • 2
    Anderson FA, Spencer FA. Risk factors for venous thromboembolism. Circulation 2003; 107 (Suppl. I): I9–I-16.
  • 3
    Bienvenu T, Ankri A, Chadefaux B, Kamoun P. Plasma homocysteine assay in the exploration of thrombosis in young subjects. Presse Med 1991; 20: 9858.
  • 4
    Brattstrom L, Tengborn L, Lagerstedt C, Israelsson B, Hultberg B. Plasma homocysteine in venous thromboembolism. Haemostasis 1991; 21: 517.
  • 5
    Falcon CR, Cattaneo M, Panzeri D, Martinelli I, Mannucci PM. High prevalence of hyperhomocyst(e)inemia in patients with juvenile venous thrombosis. Arterioscler Thromb 1994; 14: 10803.
  • 6
    Den Heijer M, Blom HJ, Gerrits WB, Rosendaal FR, Haak HL, Wijermans PW, Bos GM. Is hyperhomocysteinaemia a risk factor for recurrent venous thrombosis? Lancet 1995; 345: 8825.DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(95)90008-X
  • 7
    Den Heijer M, Koster T, Blom HJ, Bos GM, Briet E, Reitsma PH, Vandenbroucke JP, Rosendaal FR. Hyperhomocysteinemia and venous thrombosis: a meta-analysis. Thromb Haemost 1998; 80: 8747.
  • 8
    Ridker PM, Hennekens CH, Selhub J, Miletich JP, Malinow MR, Stampfer MJ. Interrelation of hyperhomocyst(e)inemia, factor V Leiden, and risk of future venous thromboembolism. Circulation 1997; 95: 177782.
  • 9
    Eichinger S, Stumpfen A, Hirschl M, Bialonczyk C, Herkner M, Stain M, Schneider, B, Pabinger I, Lechner K, Kyrle PA. Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor of recurrent thromboembolism. Thromb Haemost 1998; 80: 5669.
  • 10
    Tsai AW, Cushman M, Tsai MY, Heckbert SR, Rosamond WD, Aleksic NN, Yanez D, Psaty BM, Folsom AR. Serum homocysteine, thermolabile variant of methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), and venous thromboembolism: longitudinal investigation of thromboembolism (LITE). Am J Hematol 2003; 72: 192200.DOI: 10.1002/ajh.10287
  • 11
    Davey Smith G, Ebrahim S. ‘Mendelian randomization’: can genetic epidemiology contribute to understanding environmental determinants of disease? Int J Epidemiol 2003; 32: 122.DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyg070
  • 12
    Frosst P, Blom HJ, Milos R, Goyette P, Sheppard CA, Matthews RG, Boers GJH, Den Heijer M, Kluijtmans LAJ, Van Den Heuvel LP, Rozen R. A candidate genetic risk factor for vascular disease: a common mutation in methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase. Nature Genet 1995; 10: 11113.DOI: 10.1038/ng0595-111
  • 13
    Jacques PF, Bostom AG, Williams RR, Ellison RC, Eckfeldt JH, Rosenberg IH, Selhub J, Rosen R. Relation between folate status, a common mutation between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, and plasma homocysteine concentrations. Circulation 1996; 93: 79.
  • 14
    Hustad S, Ueland PM, Vollset SE, Zhang Y, Bjorke-Monsen AL, Schneede J. Riboflavin as a determinant of plasma total homocysteine: effect modification by methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism. J Clin Chem 2000; 46: 106571.
  • 15
    Ray JG, Shmorgun D, Chan WS. Common C677T polymorphism of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene and the risk of venous thromboembolism: meta-analysis of 31 studies. Pathophysiol Haemost Thromb 2002; 32: 518.DOI: 10.1159/000065076
  • 16
    Wald DS, Law M, Morris JK. Homocysteine and cardiovascular disease: evidence on causality from a meta-analysis. BMJ 2002; 325: 12028.
  • 17
    Arruda VR, Von Zuben PM, Chiaparini LC, Annichino-Bizzacchi JM, Costa FF. The mutation Ala677[RIGHTWARDS ARROW]Val in the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase gene: a risk factor for arterial disease and venous thrombosis. Thromb Haemost 1997; 77: 81821.
  • 18
    Tosetto A, Missiaglia E, Frezzato M, Rodeghiero F. The VITA project: C677T mutation in the methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase gene and risk of venous thromboembolism. Br J Haematol 1997; 97: 8046.DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2141.1997.1422957.x
  • 19
    Salden A, Keeney S, Hay CR, Cumming AM. The C677T MTHFR variant and the risk of venous thrombosis. Br J Haematol 1997; 99: 472.
  • 20
    Cattaneo M, Tsai MY, Bucciarelli P, Taioli E, Zighetti ML, Bignell M, Mannucci PM. A common mutation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (C677T) increases the risk for deep-vein thrombosis in patients with mutant factor V (factor V:Q506). Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1997; 17: 16626.
  • 21
    Amundsen T, Ueland PM, Waage A. Plasma homocysteine levels in patients with deep venous thrombosis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1995; 15: 13213.
  • 22
    Fermo I, Vigano'D'Angelo S, Paroni R, Mazzola G, Calori G, D'Angelo A. Prevalence of moderate hyperhomocysteinemia in patients with early-onset venous and arterial occlusive disease. Ann Intern Med 1995; 123: 74753.
  • 23
    Den Heijer M, Koster T, Blom HJ, Bos GM, Briet E, Reitsma PH, Vandenbroucke JP, Rosendaal FR. Hyperhomocysteinemia as a risk factor for deep-vein thrombosis. N Engl J Med 1996; 334: 75962.DOI: 10.1056/NEJM199603213341203
  • 24
    Cattaneo M, Martinelli I, Mannucci PM. Hyperhomocysteinemia as a risk factor for deep-vein thrombosis. N Engl J Med 1996; 335: 9745.
  • 25
    Simioni P, Prandoni P, Burlina A, Tormene D, Sardella C, Ferrari V, Benedetti L, Girolami A. Hyperhomocysteinemia and deep-vein thrombosis. A case–control study. Thromb Haemost 1996; 76: 8836.
  • 26
    Vargas M, Soto I, Pinto CR, Urgelles MF, Coto E. Mild hyperhomocysteinemia and MTHFR C677T do not increase the risk for venous thrombosis in a Spanish population. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 1998; 9: 5556.
  • 27
    Quere I, Chasse JF, Dupuy E, Bellet E, Molho-Sabatier P, Tobelem G, Janbon C. Homocysteine, 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and deep venous thrombosis. Survey of 120 patients in internal medicine. Rev Med Interne 1998; 19: 2933.DOI: 10.1016/S0248-8663(97)83696-X
  • 28
    Gemmati D, Previati M, Serino ML, Moratelli S, Guerra S, Capitani S, Forini E, Ballerini G, Scapoli GL. Low folate levels and thermolabile methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase as primary determinant of mild hyperhomocystinemia in normal and thromboembolic subjects. Arterioscler Thrombvasc Biol 1999; 19: 17617.
  • 29
    Bozic M, Stegnar M, Fermo I, Ritonja A, Peternel P, Stare J, D'Angelo A. Mild hyperhomocysteinemia and fibrinolytic factors in patients with history of venous thromboembolism. Thromb Res 2000; 100: 2718.
  • 30
    De Franchis R, Fermo I, Mazzola G, Sebastio G, Di Minno G, Coppola A, Andria G, D'Angelo A. Contribution of the cystathionine betasynthase gene (844ins68) polymorphism to the risk of early-onset venous and arterial occlusive disease and of fasting hyperhomocysteinemia. Thromb Haemost 2000; 84: 57682.
  • 31
    De Stefano V, Zappacosta B, Persichilli S, Rossi E, Casorelli I, Paciaroni K, Chiusolo P, Leone AM, Giardina B, Leone G. Prevalence of mild hyperhomocysteinaemia and association with thrombophilic genotypes (factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A) in Italian patients with venous thromboembolic disease. Br J Haematol 1999; 106: 5648.DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2141.1999.01613.x
  • 32
    D'Angelo A, Coppola A, Madonna P, Fermo I, Pagano A, Mazzola G, Galli L, Cerbone AM. The role of vitamin B12 in fasting hyperhomocysteinemia and its interaction with the homozygous C677T mutation of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene. A case–control study of patients with early-onset thrombotic events. Thromb Haemost 2000; 83: 56370.
  • 33
    Langman LJ, Ray JG, Evrovski J, Yeo E, Cole DE. Hyperhomocyst(e)inemia and the increased risk of venous thromboembolism: more evidence from a case–control study. Arch Intern Med 2000; 160: 9614.DOI: 10.1001/archinte.160.7.961
  • 34
    Cattaneo M, Lombardi R, Lecchi A, Bucciarelli P, Mannucci PM. Low plasma levels of vitamin B(6) are independently associated with a heightened risk of deep-vein thrombosis. Circulation 2001; 104: 24426.
  • 35
    Hsu TS, Hsu LA, Chang CJ, Sun CF, Ko YL, Kuo CT, Chiang CW, Lee YS. Importance of hyperhomocysteinemia as a risk factor for venous thromboembolism in a Taiwanese population. A case–control study. Thromb Res 2001; 102: 38795.DOI: 10.1016/S0049-3848(01)00262-6
  • 36
    Iglesias Varela ML, Adamczuk YP, Forastiero RR, Martinuzzo ME, Cerrato GS, Pombo G, Carreras LO. Major and potential prothrombotic genotypes in a cohort of patients with venous thromboembolism. Thromb Res 2001; 104: 31724.DOI: 10.1016/S0049-3848(01)00384-X
  • 37
    Ray JG, Langman LJ, Vermeulen MJ, Evrovski J, Yeo EL, Cole DE. Genetics University of Toronto Thrombophilia Study in Women (GUTTSI): genetic and other risk factors for venous thromboembolism in women. Curr Control Trials Cardiovasc Med 2001; 2: 14119.DOI: 10.1186/CVM-2-3-141
  • 38
    Lin JS, Shen MC, Cheng WC, Tsay W, Wang YC, Lin BB, Hung MH. Age, sex and vitamin status affect plasma level of homocysteine, but hyperhomocysteinaemia is possibly not an important risk factor for venous thrombophilia in Taiwanese Chinese. Br J Haematol 2002; 117: 1593.DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2141.2002.03384.x
  • 39
    Meinardi JR, Middeldorp S, De Kam PJ, Koopman MM, Van Pampus EC, Hamulyak K, Prins MH, Buller HR, Van Der Meer J. The incidence of recurrent venous thromboembolism in carriers of factor V Leiden is related to concomitant thrombophilic disorders. Br J Haematol 2002; 116: 62531.DOI: 10.1046/j.0007-1048.2001.03303.x
  • 40
    Morelli VM, Lourenco DM, D'Almeida V, Franco RF, Miranda F, Zago MA, Noguti MA, Cruz E, Kerbauy J. Hyperhomocysteinemia increases the risk of venous thrombosis independent of the C677T mutation of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene in selected Brazilian patients. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 2002; 13: 2715.DOI: 10.1097/00001721-200204000-00014
  • 41
    Quere I, Perneger TV, Zittoun J, Bellet H, Gris JC, Daures JP, Schved JF, Mercier E, Laroche JP, Dauzat M, Bounameaux H, Janbon C, De Moerloose P. Red blood cell methylfolate and plasma homocysteine as risk factors for venous thromboembolism: a matched case–control study. Lancet 2002; 359: 74752.DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(02)07876-5
  • 42
    Ocal IT, Sadeghi A, Press RD. Risk of venous thrombosis in carriers of acommon mutation in the homocysteine regulatory enzyme methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase. Mol Diagn 1997; 2: 618.
  • 43
    Legnani C, Palareti G, Grauso F, Sassi S, Grossi G, Piazzi S, Bernardi F, Marchetti G, Ferraresi P, Coccheri S. Hyperhomocyst(e)inemia and a common methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase mutation (Ala223Val MTHFR) in patients with inherited thrombophilic coagulation defects. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1997; 17: 29249.
  • 44
    Akar N, Akar E, Misirlioglu M, Avcu F, Yalcin A, Cin S. Search for genetic factors favoring thrombosis in Turkish population. Thromb Res 1998; 92: 7982.DOI: 10.1016/S0049-3848(98)00113-3
  • 45
    Brown K, Luddington R, Baglin T. Effect of the MTHFRC677T variant on risk of venous thromboembolism: interaction with factor V Leiden and prothrombin (F2G20210A) mutations. Br J Haematol 1998; 103: 424.
  • 46
    De Stefano V, Chiusolo P, Paciaroni K, Serra FG, Voso MT, Casorelli I, Rossi E, Leone G. Prevalence of the 677C to T mutation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene in Italian patients with venous thrombotic disease. Thromb Haemost 1998; 79: 6867.
  • 47
    Kluijtmans LA, Den Heijer M, Reitsma PH, Heil SG, Blom HJ, Rosendaal FR. Thermolabile methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and factor V Leiden in the risk of deep-vein thrombosis. Thromb Haemost 1998; 79: 2548.
  • 48
    Margaglione M, D'Andrea G, D'Addedda M, Giuliani N, Cappucci G, Iannaccone L, Vecchione G, Grandone E, Brancaccio V, Di Minno G. The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase TT677 genotype is associated with venous thrombosis independently of the coexistence of the FV Leiden and the prothrombin A20210 mutation. Thromb Haemost 1998; 79: 90711.
  • 49
    Dilley A, Austin H, Hooper WC, Lally C, Ribeiro MJ, Wenger NK, Silva V, Rawlins P, Evatt B. Relation of three genetic traits to venous thrombosis in an African-American population. Am J Epidemiol 1998; 147: 305.
  • 50
    Grandone E, Margaglione M, Colaizzo D, D'Andrea G, Cappucci G, Brancaccio V, Di Minno G. Genetic susceptibility to pregnancy-related venous thromboembolism: roles of factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T mutations. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1998; 179: 13248.
  • 51
    Philipp CS, Dilley A, Saidi P, Evatt B, Austin H, Zawadsky J, Harwood D, Ellingsen D, Barnhart E, Phillips DJ, Hooper WC. Deletion polymorphism in the angiotensin converting enzyme gene as a thrombophilic risk factor after hip arthroplasty. Thromb Haemost 1998; 80: 86973.
  • 52
    Salomon O, Steinberg DM, Zivelin A, Gitel S, Dardik R, Rosenberg N, Berliner S, Inbal A, Many A, Lubetsky A, Varon D, Martinowitz U, Seligsohn U. Single and combined prothrombotic factors in patients with idiopathic venous thromboembolism: prevalence and risk assessment. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1999; 19: 51118.
  • 53
    Franco RF, Morelli V, Lourenco D, Maffei FH, Tavella MH, Piccinato CE, Thomazini IA, Zago MA. A second mutation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene and the risk of venous thrombotic disease. Br J Haematol 1999; 105: 5569.DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2141.1999.01254.x
  • 54
    Alhenc-Gelas M, Arnaud E, Nicaud V, Aubry ML, Fiessinger JN, Aiach M, Emmerich J. Venous thromboembolic disease and the prothrombin, methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase and factor V genes. Thromb Haemost 1999; 81: 50610.
  • 55
    Gaustadnes M, Rudiger N, Moller J, Rasmussen K, Bjerregaard Larsen T, Ingerslev J. Thrombophilic predisposition in stroke and venous thromboembolism in Danish patients. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 1999; 10: 2519.
  • 56
    Gemmati D, Serino ML, Trivellato C, Fiorini S, Scapoli GL. C677T substitution in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene as a risk factor for venous thrombosis and arterial disease in selected patients. Haematologica 1999; 84: 8248.
  • 57
    Hessner MJ, Luhm RA, Pearson SL, Endean DJ, Friedman KD, Montgomery RR. Prevalence of prothrombin G20210A, factor V G1691A (Leiden), and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T in seven different populations determined by multiplex allele-specific PCR. Thromb Haemost 1999; 81: 7338.
  • 58
    Gonzalez Ordonez AJ, Fernandez Alvarez CR, Rodriguez JM, Garcia EC, Alvarez MV. Genetic polymorphism of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and venous thromboembolism: a case–control study. Haematologica 1999; 84: 1901.DOI: 10.1159/000015255
  • 59
    Rintelen C, Mannhalter C, Lechner K, Eichinger S, Kyrle PA, Papagiannopoulos M, Schneider B, Pabinger I. No evidence for an increased risk of venous thrombosis in patients with factor V Leiden by the homozygous 677 C to T mutation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate-reductase gene. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 1999; 10: 1015.
  • 60
    Balta G, Gurgey A. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T mutation in Turkish patients with thrombosis. Turk J Pediatr 1999; 41: 1979.
  • 61
    Isotalo PA, Donnelly JG. Prevalence of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase mutations in patients with venous thrombosis. Mol Diagn 2000; 5: 5966.
  • 62
    Lin JS, Shen MC, Tsai W, Lin B. The prevalence of C677T mutation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene and its association with venous thrombophilia in Taiwanese Chinese. Thromb Res 2000; 97: 8994.DOI: 10.1016/S0049-3848(99)00160-7
  • 63
    Akar N, Akar E, Akcay R, Avcu F, Yalcin A, Cin S. Effect of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677 C-T, 1298 A-C, and 1317 T-C on factor V 1691 mutation in Turkish deep vein thrombosis patients. Thromb Res 2000; 97: 1637.DOI: 10.1016/S0049-3848(99)00157-7
  • 64
    Fujimura H, Kawasaki T, Sakata T, Ariyoshi H, Kato H, Monden M, Miyata T. Common C677T polymorphism in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene increases the risk for deep vein thrombosis in patients with predisposition of thrombophilia. Thromb Res 2000; 98: 18.DOI: 10.1016/S0049-3848(99)00231-5
  • 65
    Zheng YZ, Tong J, Do XP, Pu XQ, Zhou BT. Prevalence of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T and its association with arterial and venous thrombosis in the Chinese population. Br J Haematol 2000; 109: 8704.DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2141.2000.02112.x
  • 66
    Toydemir PB, Elhan AH, Tukun A, Toydemir R, Gurler A, Tuzuner A, Bokesoy I. Effects of factor V gene G1691A, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene C677T, and prothombin gene G20210A mutations on deep venous thrombogenesis in Behçet's disease. J Rheumatol 2000; 27: 284954.
  • 67
    Ho CH. Prevalence of prothrombin 20210A allele and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T genetic mutations in the Chinese population. Ann Hematol 2000; 79: 23942.DOI: 10.1007/s002770050586
  • 68
    Couturaud F, Oger E, Abalain JH, Chenu E, Guias B, Floch HH, Mercier B, Mottier D, Leroyer C. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T genotype and venous thromboembolic disease. Respiration 2000; 67: 65761.
  • 69
    Gerhardt A, Scharf RE, Beckmann MW, Struve S, Bender HG, Pillny M, Sandmann W, Zotz RB. Prothrombin and factor V mutations in women with a history of thrombosis during pregnancy and the puerperium. N Engl J Med 2000; 342: 37480.DOI: 10.1056/NEJM200002103420602
  • 70
    Hsu LA, Ko YL, Wang SM, Chang CJ, Hsu TS, Chiang CW, Lee YS. The C677T mutation of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene is not associated with the risk of coronary artery disease or venous thrombosis among Chinese in Taiwan. Hum Hered 2001; 51: 415.DOI: 10.1159/000022958
  • 71
    Hanson NQ, Aras O, Yang F, Tsai MY. C677T and A1298C polymorphisms of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene: incidence and effect of combined genotypes on plasma fasting and post-methionine load homocysteine in vascular disease. Clin Chem 2001; 47: 6616.
  • 72
    Guedon C, Le Cam-Duchez V, Lalaude O, Menard JF, Lerebours E, Borg JY. Prothrombotic inherited abnormalities other than factor V Leiden mutation do not play a role in venous thrombosis in inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Gastroenterol 2001; 96: 144854.
  • 73
    Linfert DR, Tsongalis GJ. Coexistence of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase single-nucleotide polymorphism (C677T) in patients with the factor V Leiden or prothrombin G20210A polymorphisms. Diagn Mol Pathol 2001; 10: 1115.DOI: 10.1097/00019606-200106000-00007
  • 74
    Keijzer MB, Den Heijer M, Blom HJ, Bos GM, Willems HP, Gerrits WB, Rosendaal FR. Interaction between hyperhomocysteinemia, mutated methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and inherited thrombophilic factors in recurrent venous thrombosis. Thromb Haemost 2002; 88: 7238.
  • 75
    Hainaut P, Jaumotte C, Verhelst D, Wallemacq P, Gala JL, Lavenne E, Heusterspreute M, Zech F, Moriau M. Hyperhomocysteinemia and venous thromboembolism: a risk factor more prevalent in the elderly and in idiopathic cases. Thromb Res 2002; 106: 1215.DOI: 10.1016/S0049-3848(02)00096-8
  • 76
    Grossmann R, Schwender S, Geisen U, Schambeck C, Merati G, Walter U. CBS 844ins68, MTHFR TT677 and EPCR 4031ins23 genotypes in patients with deep-vein thrombosis. Thromb Res 2002; 107: 135.DOI: 10.1016/S0049-3848(02)00187-1
  • 77
    Domagala TB, Adamek L, Nizankowska E, Sanak M, Szczeklik A. Mutations C677T and A1298C of the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene and fasting plasma homocysteine levels are not associated with the increased risk of venous thromboembolic disease. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 2002; 13: 42331.DOI: 10.1097/00001721-200207000-00007
  • 78
    Zalavras CG, Giotopoulou S, Dokou E, Mitsis M, Ioannou HV, Tzolou A, Kolaitis N, Vartholomatos G. Lack of association between the C677T mutation in the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene and venous thromboembolism in Northwestern Greece. Int Angiol 2002; 21: 26871.
  • 79
    Lu Y, Zhao Y, Liu G, Wang X, Liu Z, Chen B, Hui R. Factor V gene G1691A mutation, prothrombin gene G20210A mutation, and MTHFR gene C677T mutation are not risk factors for pulmonary thromboembolism in Chinese population. Thromb Res 2002; 106: 712.DOI: 10.1016/S0049-3848(02)00064-6
  • 80
    Dowling NF, Austin H, Dilley A, Whitsett C, Evatt BL, Hooper WC. The epidemiology of venous thromboembolism in Caucasians and African-Americans: the GATE Study. J Thromb Haemost 2003; 1: 807.DOI: 10.1046/j.1538-7836.2003.00031.x
  • 81
    Seinost G, Renner W, Brodmann M, Winkler M, Koppel H, Pilger E. C677T mutation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene as a risk factor for venous thrombotic disease in Austrian patients. Thromb Res 2000; 100: 4057.DOI: 10.1016/S0049-3848(00)00341-8
  • 82
    Gonzalez Y, Souto JC, Mateo J, Cordoba A, Blanco-Vaca F, Fontcuberta J. Moderate hyperhomocysteinemia is a highly prevalent defect in Spanish patients with venous thromboembolic disease. Haematologica 1998; 83: 11267.
  • 83
    Cattaneo M, Chantarangkul V, Taioli E, Santos JH, Tagliabue L. The G20210A mutation of the prothrombin gene in patients with previous first episodes of deep-vein thrombosis: prevalence and association with factor V G1691A, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T and plasma prothrombin levels. Thromb Res 1999; 93: 18.
  • 84
    Angchaisuksiri P, Pingsuthiwong S, Sura T, Aryuchai K, Busabaratana M, Atichartakarn V. Prevalence of the C677T methylenetetra-hydrofolate reductase mutation in Thai patients with deep vein thrombosis. Acta Haematol 2000; 103: 1916.DOI: 10.1159/000041048
  • 85
    Shen MC, Lin JS, Tsay W. Protein C and protein S deficiencies are the most important risk factors associated with thrombosis in Chinese venous thrombophilic patients in Taiwan. Thromb Res 2000; 99: 44752.DOI: 10.1016/S0049-3848(00)00265-6
  • 86
    Cappucci G, Margaglione M, Ames PR. Comparative prevalence of antiphospholipid antibodies and thrombophilic genotypes in consecutive patients with venous thrombosis. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 2001; 12: 65965.
  • 87
    Salomon O, Rosenberg N, Zivelin A, Steinberg DM, Kornbrot N, Dardik R, Inbal A, Seligsohn U. Methionine synthase A2756G and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase A1298C polymorphisms are not risk factors for idiopathic venous thromboembolism. Hematol J 2001; 2: 3841.DOI: 10.1038/sj.thj.6200078
  • 88
    Nizankowska-Mogilnicka E, Adamek L, Grzanka P, Domagala TB, Sanak M, Krzanowski M, Szczeklik A. Genetic polymorphisms associated with acute pulmonary embolism and deep venous thrombosis. Eur Respir J 2003; 21: 2530.DOI: 10.1183/09031936.03.00034302
  • 89
    Woolf B. On estimating the relation between blood group and disease. Ann Humgenet 1955; 19: 2513.
  • 90
    Danesh J, Collins R, Appleby P, Peto R. Association of fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, albumin, or leukocyte count with coronary heart disease: meta-analyses of prospective studies. JAMA 1998; 13: 147782.DOI: 10.1001/jama.279.18.1477
  • 91
    Danesh J, Lewington S. Plasma homocysteine and coronary heart disease: systematic review of published epidemiological studies. J Cardiovasc Risk 1998; 5: 22932.
  • 92
    Homocysteine Studies Collaboration. Homocysteine and risk of ischemic heart disease and stroke: a meta-analysis. JAMA 2002; 288: 201523.DOI: 10.1001/jama.288.16.2015
  • 93
    Clarke R, Shipley M, Lewington S, Youngman L, Collins R, Marmot M, Peto R. Underestimation of risk associations due to regression dilution in long-term follow-up of prospective studies. Am J Epidemiol 1999; 150: 34153.
  • 94
    Clarke R, Lewington S, Donald A, Johnston C, Refsum H, Stratton I, Jacques P, Breteler MMB, Holman R. Underestimation of the importance of homocysteine as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in epidemiological studies. J Cardiovasc Risk 2001; 8: 3639.
  • 95
    Klerk M, Verhoef P, Clarke R, Blom HJ, Kok FJ, Schouten EG. MTHFR 677C[RIGHTWARDS ARROW]T polymorphism and risk of coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis. JAMA 2002; 288: 202331.DOI: 10.1001/jama.288.16.2023
  • 96
    Quinlivan EP, Gregory JF III. Effect of food fortification on folic acid intake in the United States. Am J Clin Nutr 2003; 77: 2215.
  • 97
    Homocysteine Lowering Trialists' Collaboration. Lowering blood homocysteine with folic acid based supplements: meta-analysis of randomised trials. BMJ 1998; 316: 8948.
  • 98
    Clarke R, Refsum H, Birks J, Grimley-Evans J, Johnston C, Ueland PM, Sherliker P, Schneede J, McPartlin J, Nexo E, Scott J. Screening for vitamin B12 and folate deficiency in older people. Am J Clin Nutr 2003; 77: 12417.
  • 99
    Clarke R, Collins R. Can dietary supplements with folic acid or vitamin B6 reduce cardiovascular risk? Design of clinical trials to test the homocysteine hypothesis of vascular disease. J Cardiovasc Risk 1998; 5: 24955.
  • 100
    Willems HP, Den Heijer M, Bos GM. Homocysteine and venous thrombosis: outline of a vitamin intervention trial. Semin Thromb Hemost 2000; 26: 297304.DOI: 10.1055/s-2000-8097