Summary. Objectives: To examine possible associations of ABO blood types with the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in pregnancy and the puerperium. Patients and methods: We conducted a nested case–control study within a cohort of 71 729 women who gave birth to 126 783 children in the North Jutland County, Denmark, from 1980 to 2001. We identified 129 cases with VTE in pregnancy (n = 61) or the puerperium (n = 68), and 258 controls with no VTE. We collected information on ABO blood groups and possible maternal confounding factors and estimated the relative risk [odds ratio (OR)]. Results: Women with an A or AB blood group had elevated risk estimates of VTE in pregnancy or the puerperium compared with women with a O blood group [adjusted ORs 2.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3, 4.3, and 2.0, 95% CI 0.7, 5.8, respectively]. No increased risk estimate was found for group B (adjusted OR 1.2, 95% CI 0.5, 3.0). The increased risk estimates of VTE for blood groups A and AB appeared present in both pregnancy (adjusted ORs of 3.9, 95% CI 1.5, 9.7, and 2.2, 95% CI 0.4, 12.5) and in the puerperium (adjusted ORs of 2.4, 95% CI 1.0, 4.9 and 2.7, 95% CI 0.8, 9.3). Furthermore, blood groups A and AB appeared to be associated with increased risk estimates for both DVT and pulmonary embolism. Conclusion: Keeping the modest statistical precision of our study in mind, blood groups A and AB may be associated with increased risk estimates for VTE in pregnancy and the puerperium.