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The tissue factor (TF)/factor VIIa (FVIIa) complex not only controls hemostatic processes, but also contributes to thrombosis-related diseases and cancer. Genetic mouse models of human diseases (e.g. prostate- and colorectal cancer, sickle cell anemia) could serve to investigate further the role of TF/FVIIa in disease progression. However, such attempts are hampered by the lack of specific antimouse TF reagents. Here, we describe the generation of the monoclonal rat antimouse TF antibody 1H1. The antibody was produced by immunizing rats with recombinant soluble mouse TF(1–219) (muTF) expressed in a baculovirus expression system. Using standard hybridoma producing techniques, the 1H1 antibody (rat IgG2a/kappa) was identified by its ability to bind to muTF in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Immunohistochemical staining of mouse frozen tissue sections with 1H1-IgG purified from ascites demonstrated specific staining in various tissues including lung and kidney. Figure 1A illustrates mouse TF expression in pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells [1,2]. Similar to human TF expression [1,2], strong mouse TF staining was also found in vascular adventitia, perineural tissue and autonomic ganglia, with weaker expression in medial smooth muscle of the renal artery (Fig. 1B).

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Figure 1. (A) Section of mouse lung stained with 1H1 antibody. Pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells are TF-positive on the apical surface; bronchial epithelial cells are weakly positive, as is bronchial epithelium in larger airways (not shown). (B) Section of mouse renal hilum, showing artery, autonomic nerve and ganglion. Adventitia (arrow heads) surrounding renal artery is strongly positive, as are perineural tissue (arrow) and an autonomic ganglion (asterisk). Smooth muscle (SMC) in the vessel wall shows weaker intercellular staining. Control sections stained with irrelevant primary IgG showed no reactivity. (C) Mouse plasma clotting time prolongation with (circles) or without (squares) preincubation of B16F10 cells with 1H1 antibody before addition to plasma. (D) Visible B16F10 tumor foci on lungs of isogenic C57Bl6J mouse 2 weeks after injection of 0.1 × 106 cells with 1H1 (right panel) or with PBS (left panel).

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In-vitro and in-vivo studies demonstrated that 1H1 inhibits mouse TF function. First, in clotting assays with the TF-expressing mouse melanoma cell line B16F10, we found 1H1 to prolong mouse plasma clotting in a concentration-dependent fashion (Fig. 1C). This was also observed in clotting assays with recombinant muTF and phospholipid vesicles. Similar to other function-blocking antibodies such as AP-1 [3,4], inhibitory activity was observed only when antibody and TF were allowed to preincubate before addition of plasma. Secondly, in a mouse lung metastasis model, B16F10 cells (0.1 × 106 cells) preincubated with 0.7 mg mL−1 of 1H1 or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) (control) were injected via tail vein to isogenic C57Bl6J mice (8–12 weeks of age). After 2 weeks, control animals developed 47 ± 6 (n = 15, ± SEM) visible lung tumor foci. Treatment with 1H1 reduced the number of tumor foci by 68% (Fig. 1D) to 15 ± 2 (n = 15, P < 0.0001). These results demonstrated that 1H1 efficiently inhibits TF function in vivo and indicate that TF activity is essential for B16F10 melanoma cell metastasis, consistent with studies using murine tissue factor pathway inhibitor [5] or the thrombin inhibitor desulfatohirudin [6].

In conclusion, the monoclonal 1H1 antibody represents a useful reagent to investigate further the biology and pathophysiology of TF in mouse models.

Conflict of interest statement

  1. Top of page
  2. Conflict of interest statement
  3. Acknowledgements
  4. References

All authors are employees of Genentech, Inc.

Acknowledgements

  1. Top of page
  2. Conflict of interest statement
  3. Acknowledgements
  4. References

We like to thank Nancy Chiang for monoclonal antibody generation, Scott Garza for animal studies, Yongmei Chen for cloning of 1H1 variable domains, Austin Gurney for cloning of mouse TF and Barb Wright for immunohistochemistry work.

References

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  2. Conflict of interest statement
  3. Acknowledgements
  4. References
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