Summary. Background: Although hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is associated with an increased risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), it is not clear if the risk differs in users of combined estrogen-progestin HRT and estrogen-only HRT. Methods: We prospectively studied postmenopausal women with suspected DVT in whom HRT use status was ascertained and who subsequently had objective diagnostic testing to confirm or exclude DVT. Cases were patients with idiopathic DVT, in whom there were no DVT risk factors, and controls were patients without DVT, in whom there were also no DVT risk factors. The risk of DVT was determined in users of estrogen-progestin HRT and estrogen-only HRT by comparing the prevalence of current HRT use in cases with idiopathic DVT and controls without DVT (reference group). Multivariable regression analysis was done to adjust for factors that might confound an association between HRT use and the risk of DVT. Results: One thousand one hundred and sixty-eight postmenopausal women with suspected DVT were assessed, from whom 95 cases of idiopathic DVT and 610 controls without DVT and no DVT risk factors were identified. Estrogen-only HRT was associated with an increased risk for DVT that was not statistically significant [odds ratio (OR) = 1.22; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.57, 2.61]. Estrogen-progestin HRT was associated with a greater than 2-fold increased risk for DVT (OR = 2.70; 95% CI 1.44, 5.07). Conclusion: The risk of developing DVT may be higher in users of combined estrogen-progestin HRT than in users of estrogen-only HRT.