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Keywords:

  • conformation sensitive gel electrophoresis;
  • factor X;
  • India

Summary.  Factor X (FX) deficiency is a rare (1 : 100000) autosomal recessive disorder caused by heterogeneous mutations in FX gene. We have studied the molecular basis this disease in six Indian and one Nepali patients. Diagnosis was confirmed by measuring the FX coagulant activity (FX: C) using a PT based assay. Six of them had a FX: C of < 1% and one patient had 24% coagulant activity. Mutations were identified in all the seven patients. These included eight (88.8%) missense and one frame-shift (11.2%) mutations of which six were novel. Three of the novel mutations, a Phe31Ser affecting ‘Gla’ domain and 514delT and 516T[RIGHTWARDS ARROW]G mutations affecting Cys132 in ‘connecting region’ were identified in a triple compound heterozygous state in a Nepali patient presenting with a severe phenotype. Two other novel mutations, Gly133Arg, may affect the disulphide bridge between Cys132-Cys302 in the connecting region while Gly223Arg may perturb the catalytic triad (His236, Asp282 and Ser379). The other novel mutation, Ser354Arg, involves the replacement of a small-buried residue by a large basic aminoacid and is likely to have steric or electrostatic effects in the pocket involving Lys351-Arg347-Lys414 that contributes to the core epitope of FXa for binding to FVa. Three previously reported mutations, Thr318Met; Gly323Ser; Gly366Ser were also identified. This is the first report of the molecular basis of FX deficiency in patients from the Indian subcontinent.