• 1
    Scandella DH. Properties of anti-factor VIII inhibitor antibodies in hemophilia A. Semin Thromb Hemost 2000; 26: 13742.
  • 2
    Dimichele D. Inhibitors: resolving diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas. Haemophilia 2002; 8: 2807.
  • 3
    Key NS. Inhibitors in congenital coagulation disorders. Br J Haematol 2004; 127: 37991.
  • 4
    Ljung R, Petrini P, Lindgren AC, Tengborn L, Nilsson IM. Factor VIII and factor IX inhibitors in haemophiliacs. Lancet 1992; 339: 1550.
  • 5
    Ehrenforth S, Kreuz W, Scharrer I, Linde R, Funk M, Gungor T, Krackhardt B, Kornhuber B. Incidence of development of factor VIII and factor IX inhibitors in haemophiliacs. Lancet 1992; 339: 5948.
  • 6
    Brackmann H-H, Gormsen J. Massive factor-VIII infusion in haemophiliac with factor VIII inhibitor, high responder. Lancet 1977; 2: 933.
  • 7
    Lechler R, Aichinger G, Lightstone L. The endogenous pathway of MHC class II antigen presentation. Immunol Rev 1996; 151: 5179.
  • 8
    Lenschow DJ, Walunas TL, Bluestone JA. CD28/B7 system of T cell costimulation. Annu Rev Immunol 1996; 14: 23358.
  • 9
    Van Kooten C, Banchereau J. Function of CD40 on B cells, dendritic cells and other cells. Curr Opin Immunol 1997; 9: 3307.
  • 10
    Judge TA, Tang A, Turka LA. Immunosuppression through blockade of CD28:B7-mediated costimulatory signals. Immunol Res 1996; 15: 3849.
  • 11
    Qian J, Collins M, Sharpe AH, Hoyer LW. Prevention and treatment of factor VIII inhibitors in murine hemophilia A. Blood 2000; 95: 13249.
  • 12
    Rammensee H-G, Friede T, Stevanovic S. MHC ligands and peptide motifs: first listing. Immunogenetics 1995; 41: 178228.
  • 13
    Rammensee HG, Bachmann J, Emmerich NP, Bachor OA, Stevanovic S. SYFPEITHI: database for MHC ligands and peptide motifs. Immunogenetics 1999; 50: 2139.
  • 14
    Addiego J, Kasper C, Abildgaard C, Hilgartner M, Lusher J, Glader B, Aledort L. Frequency of inhibitor development in haemophiliacs treated with low-purity factor VIII. Lancet 1993; 342: 46264.
  • 15
    Bray GL, Gomperts ED, Courter S, Gruppo R, Gordon EM, Manco-Johnson M, Shapiro A, Scheibel E, White GC II, Lee M. A multicenter study of recombinant factor VIII (Recombinate): safety, efficacy, and inhibitor risk in previously untreated patients with hemophilia A. The Recombinate Study Group. Blood 1994; 83: 242835.
  • 16
    de Biasi R, Rocino A, Papa ML, Salerno E, Mastrullo L, De Blasi D. Incidence of factor VIII inhibitor development in hemophilia A patients treated with less pure plasma derived concentrates. Thrombos Haemostas 1994; 71: 54447.
  • 17
    Lusher JM, Lee CA, Kessler CA, Bedrosian CL, Refacto phase 3 Study Group. The safety and efficacy of B-domain deleted recombinant factor VIII concentrate in patients with severe haemophilia A. Haemophilia 2003; 9: 3849.
  • 18
    Wight J, Paisley S. The epidemiology of inhibitors in haemophilia A: a systematic review. Haemophilia 2003; 9: 41835.
  • 19
    Lusher J, Abildgaard C, Arkin S, Mannucci PM, Zimmerman R, Schwartz L, Hurst D. Human recombinant DNA-derived antihemophilic factor in the treatment of previously untreated patients with hemophilia A: final report on a hallmark clinical investigation. J Thrombos Haemostas 2004; 2: 57483.
  • 20
    Valentine CR. The association of nonsense codons with exon skipping. Mutat Res 1998; 411: 87117.
  • 21
    Oldenburg J, Picard JK, Schwaab R, Brackmann HH, Tuddenham EG, Simpson E. HLA genotype of patients with severe haemophilia A due to intron 22 inversion with and without inhibitors to factor VIII. Thromb Haemost 1997; 77: 23842.
  • 22
    Hay CR, Ollier W, Pepper L, Cumming A, Keeney S, Goodeve AC, Colvin BT, Hill FG, Preston FE, Peake IR. HLA class II profile: a weak determinant of factor VIII inhibitor development in severe hemophilia A. A UKHCDO Inhibitor Working Party. Thromb Haemost 1997; 77: 2347.
  • 23
    Astermark J, Berntorp E, White II GC, Kroner BL, the MIBS Group. The Malmö International Brother Study (MIBS). Further support for genetic predisposition to inhibitor development. Haemophilia 2001; 7: 26772.
  • 24
    Astermark J, Oldenburg J, Escobar M, White II GC, Berntorp E, and the MIBS Group. The Malmö International Brother Study (MIBS). Genetic defects and inhibitor development in families with severe hemophilia A. Haematologica, in press.
  • 25
    Schwaab R, Brackmann HH, Meyer C, Seehafer J, Kirchgesser M, Haack A, Olek K, Tuddenham EG, Oldenburg J. Haemophilia A mutation type determines risk of inhibitor formation. Thromb Haemost 1995; 74: 14026.
  • 26
    Oldenburg J, Brackmann H-H, Schwaab R. Risk factors for inhibitor development in hemophilia A. Haematologica 2000; 85: 710.
  • 27
    Goodeve A. The incidence of inhibitor development according to specific mutations – and treatment? Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 2003; 14: S1721.
  • 28
    Jacquemin M, Vantomme V, Buhot C, Lavend'homme R, Burny W, Demotte N, Chaux P, Peerlinck K, Vermylen J, Maillere B, van der Bruggen P, Saint-Remy JM. CD4+ T-cell clones specific for wild-type factor VIII: a molecular mechanism responsible for a higher incidence of inhibitor formation in mild/moderate hemophilia A. Blood 2003; 101: 13518.