SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Wilson WA, Gharavi AE, Koike T, Lockshin MD, Branch DW, Piette JC, Brey R, Derksen R, Harris EN, Hughes GR, Triplett DA, Khamashta MA. International consensus statement on preliminary classification criteria for definite antiphospholipid syndrome: report of an international workshop. Arthritis Rheum 1999; 42: 130911.
  • 2
    Lockshin MD, Sammaritano LR, Schwartzman S. Validation of the Sapporo criteria for antiphospholipid syndrome. Arthritis Rheum 2000; 43: 4403.
  • 3
    Weber M, Hayem G, Meyer O. The Sapporo criteria for antiphospholipid syndrome: comment on the article by Lockshin et al. Arthritis Rheum 2001; 44: 19656.
  • 4
    Cooper R, Cutler J, Desvigne-Nickens P, Fortmann SP, Friedman L, Havlik R, Hogelin G, Marler J, McGovern P, Morosco G, Mosca L, Pearson T, Stamler J, Stryer D, Thom T. Trends and disparities in coronary heart disease, stroke, and other cardiovascular diseases in the United States: findings of the national conference on cardiovascular disease prevention. Circulation 2000; 102: 313747.
  • 5
    Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, Cushman WC, Green LA, Izzo Jr JL, Jones DW, Materson BJ, Oparil S, Wright Jr JT, Roccella EJ. Seventh report of the Joint National Committee on prevention, detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure. Hypertension 2003; 42: 120652.
  • 6
    Walker ID, Greaves M, Preston FE. Haemostasis and thrombosis task force, British Committee for standards in haematology. Investigation and management of heritable thrombophilia. Br J Haematol 2001; 114: 51228.
  • 7
    Genvresse I, Luftner D, Spath-Schwalbe E, Buttgereit F. Prevalence and clinical significance of anticardiolipin and anti-beta2-glycoprotein-I antibodies in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Eur J Haematol 2002; 68: 8490.
  • 8
    Lee RM, Brown MA, Branch DW, Ward K, Silver RM. Anticardiolipin and anti-beta2-glycoprotein-I antibodies in preeclampsia. Obstet Gynecol 2003; 102: 294300.
  • 9
    Branch DW, Porter TF, Rittenhouse L, Caritis S, Sibai B, Hogg B, Lindheimer MD, Klebanoff M, MacPherson C, VanDorsten JP, Landon M, Paul R, Miodovnik M, Meis P, Thurnau G. Antiphospholipid antibodies in women at risk for preeclampsia. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2001; 184: 82532; discussion 8324.
  • 10
    Sebire NJ, Backos M, El Gaddal S, Goldin RD, Regan L. Placental pathology, antiphospholipid antibodies, and pregnancy outcome in recurrent miscarriage patients. Obstet Gynecol 2003; 101: 25863.
  • 11
    American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Diagnosis and Management of Preeclampsia and Eclampsia. ACOG Practice Bulletin No 33. Washington, DC: American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 2002.
  • 12
    Branch DW, Andres R, Digre KB, Rote NS, Scott JR. The association of antiphospholipid antibodies with severe preeclampsia. Obstet Gynecol 1989; 73: 5415.
  • 13
    Levine JS, Branch DW, Rauch J. The antiphospholipid syndrome. N Engl J Med 2002; 346: 75263.
  • 14
    Wong RC. Consensus guidelines for anticardiolipin antibody testing. Thromb Res 2004; 114: 55971.
  • 15
    Harris EN, Chan JK, Asherson RA, Aber VR, Gharavi AE, Hughes GR. Thrombosis, recurrent fetal loss, and thrombocytopenia. Predictive value of the anticardiolipin antibody test. Arch Intern Med 1986; 146: 21536.
  • 16
    Finazzi G, Brancaccio V, Moia M, Ciaverella N, Mazzucconi MG, Schinco PC, Ruggeri M, Pogliani EM, Gamba G, Rossi E, Baudo F, Manotti C, D'Angelo A, Palareti G, De Stefano V, Berrettini M, Barbui T. Natural history and risk factors for thrombosis in 360 patients with antiphospholipid antibodies: a four-year prospective study from the Italian Registry. Am J Med 1996; 100: 5306.
  • 17
    Lynch A, Marlar R, Murphy J, Davila G, Santos M, Rutledge J, Emlen W. Antiphospholipid antibodies in predicting adverse pregnancy outcome. A prospective study. Ann Intern Med 1994; 120: 4705.
  • 18
    Tincani A, Allegri F, Balestrieri G, Reber G, Sanmarco M, Meroni P, Boffa MC. Minimal requirements for antiphospholipid antibodies ELISAs proposed by the European Forum on antiphospholipid antibodies. Thromb Res 2004; 114: 5538.
  • 19
    Levine SR, Salowich-Palm L, Sawaya KL, Perry M, Spencer HJ, Winkler HJ, Alam Z, Carey JL. IgG anticardiolipin antibody titer >40 GPL and the risk of subsequent thrombo-occlusive events and death. A prospective cohort study. Stroke 1997; 28: 16605.
  • 20
    Neville C, Rauch J, Kassis J, Chang ER, Joseph L, Le Comte M, Fortin PR. Thromboembolic risk in patients with high titre anticardiolipin and multiple antiphospholipid antibodies. Thromb Haemost 2003; 90: 10815.
  • 21
    Obermoser G, Bitterlich W, Kunz F, Sepp NT. Clinical significance of anticardiolipin and anti-beta2-glycoprotein I antibodies. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2004; 135: 14853.
  • 22
    Detkova D, Gil-Aguado A, Lavilla P, Cuesta MV, Fontan G, Pascual-Salcedo D. Do antibodies to beta2-glycoprotein 1 contribute to the better characterization of the antiphospholipid syndrome? Lupus 1999; 8: 4308.
  • 23
    Lee EY, Lee CK, Lee TH, Chung SM, Kim SH, Cho YS, Yoo B, Moon HB. Does the anti-beta2-glycoprotein I antibody provide additional information in patients with thrombosis? Thromb Res 2003; 111: 2932.
  • 24
    Derksen W, Erkan D, Kaplan V, Sammaritano L, Pierangeli SS, Lockshin MD. Real world experience with antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL): How stable are aPL over time? Arthritis Rheum 2004; 50: S67.
  • 25
    Topping J, Quenby S, Farquharson R, Malia R, Greaves M. Marked variation in antiphospholipid antibodies during pregnancy: relationships to pregnancy outcome. Hum Reprod 1999; 14: 2248.
  • 26
    Salazar-Paramo M, Jara LJ, Ramos A, Barile L, Machado G, Garcia-De La Torre I. Longitudinal study of antinuclear and anticardiolipin antibodies in pregnant women with systemic lupus erythematosus and antiphospholipid syndrome. Rheumatol Int 2002; 22: 1427.
  • 27
    McClain MT, Arbuckle MR, Heinlen LD, Dennis GJ, Roebuck J, Rubertone MV, Harley JB, James JA. The prevalence, onset, and clinical significance of antiphospholipid antibodies prior to diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 2004; 50: 122632.
  • 28
    Male C, Foulon D, Hoogendoorn H, Vegh P, Silverman E, David M, Mitchell L. Predictive value of persistent versus transient antiphospholipid antibody subtypes for the risk of thrombotic events in pediatric patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Blood 2005; 106: 41528.
  • 29
    Vianna JL, Khamashta MA, Ordi-Ros J, Font J, Cervera R, Lopez-Soto A, Tolosa C, Franz J, Selva A, Ingelmo M, Vilardell M, Hughes GRV. Comparison of the primary and secondary antiphospholipid syndrome: a European Multicenter Study of 114 patients. Am J Med 1994; 96: 39.
  • 30
    Salmon JE, Girardi G, Holers VM. Complement activation as a mediator of antiphospholipid antibody induced pregnancy loss and thrombosis. Ann Rheum Dis 2002; 61: ii4650.
  • 31
    Girardi G, Redecha P, Salmon JE. Heparin prevents antiphospholipid antibody-induced fetal loss by inhibiting complement activation. Nat Med 2004; 10: 12226.
  • 32
    Asherson RA, Cervera R, De Groot PG, Erkan D, Boffa MC, Piette JC, Khamashta MA, Shoenfeld Y. Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome: international consensus statement on classification criteria and treatment guidelines. Lupus 2003; 12: 5304.
  • 33
    Cervera R, Piette JC, Font J, Khamashta MA, Shoenfeld Y, Camps MT, Jacobsen S, Lakos G, Tincani A, Kontopoulou-Griva I, Galeazzi M, Meroni PL, Derksen RH, De Groot PG, Gromnica-Ihle E, Baleva M, Mosca M, Bombardieri S, Houssiau F, Gris JC, Quere I, Hachulla E, Vasconcelos C, Roch B, Fernandez-Nebro A, Boffa MC, Hughes GR, Ingelmo M. Antiphospholipid syndrome: clinical and immunologic manifestations and patterns of disease expression in a cohort of 1000 patients. Arthritis Rheum 2002; 46: 101927.
  • 34
    Turiel M, Muzzupappa S, Gottardi B, Crema C, Sarzi-Puttini P, Rossi E. Evaluation of cardiac abnormalities and embolic sources in primary antiphospholipid syndrome by transesophageal echocardiography. Lupus 2000; 9: 40612.
  • 35
    Galve E, Ordi J, Barquinero J, Evangelista A, Vilardell M, Soler-Soler J. Valvular heart disease in the primary antiphospholipid syndrome. Ann Intern Med 1992; 116: 2938.
  • 36
    Schiller NB, Foster E, Redberg RF. Transesophageal echocardiography in the evaluation of mitral regurgitation. The twenty-four signs of severe mitral regurgitation. Cardiol Clin 1993; 11: 399408.
  • 37
    Cervera R. Coronary and valvular syndromes and antiphospholipid antibodies. Thromb Res 2004; 114: 5017.
  • 38
    Singh JP, Evans JC, Levy D, Larson MG, Freed LA, Fuller DL, Lehman B, Benjamin EJ. Prevalence and clinical determinants of mitral, tricuspid, and aortic regurgitation (the Framingham Heart Study). Am J Cardiol 1999; 83: 897902.
  • 39
    Brey RL, Chapman J, Levine SR, Ruiz-Irastorza G, Derksen RHWM, Khamashta M, Shoenfeld Y. Stroke and the antiphospholipid syndrome: consensus meeting Taormina 2002. Lupus 2003; 12: 50813.
  • 40
    Cesbron JY, Amouyel P, Masy E. Anticardiolipin antibodies and physical disability in the elderly. Ann Intern Med 1997; 126: 1003.
  • 41
    Chapman J, Abu-Katash M, Inzelberg R, Yust I, Neufeld MY, Vardinon N, Treves TA, Korczyn AD. Prevalence and clinical features of dementia associated with the antiphospholipid syndrome and circulating anticoagulants. J Neurol Sci 2002; 203–204: 814.
  • 42
    Menon S, Jameson-Shortall E, Newman SP, Hall-Craggs MR, Chinn R, Isenberg DA. A longitudinal study of anticardiolipin antibody levels and cognitive functioning in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 1999; 42: 73541.
  • 43
    Mc Laurin EY, Holliday SL, Williams P, Brey RL. Predictors of cognitive dysfunction in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Neurology 2005; 64: 297303.
  • 44
    Montalban J, Cervera R, Font J, Ordi J, Vianna J, Haga HJ, Tintore M, Khamashta MA, Hughes GR. Lack of association between anticardiolipin antibodies and migraine in systemic lupus erythematosus. Neurology 1992; 42: 6812.
  • 45
    Tietjen GE, Day M, Norris L, Aurora S, Halvorsen A, Schultz LR, Levine SR. Role of anticardiolipin antibodies in young persons with migraine and transient focal neurologic events: a prospective study. Neurology 1998; 50: 143340.
  • 46
    Tourbah A, Clapin A, Gout O, Fontaine B, Liblau R, Batteux F, Stievenart JL, Weill B, Lubetzki C, Lyon-Caen O. Systemic autoimmune features and multiple sclerosis: a 5-year follow-up study. Arch Neurol 1998; 55: 51721.
  • 47
    Roussel V, Yi F, Jauberteau MO, Couderq C, Lacombe C, Michelet V, Gil R, Couratier P, Vallat JM, Preud'homme JL. Prevalence and clinical significance of anti-phospholipid antibodies in multiple sclerosis: a study of 89 patients. J Autoimmun 2000; 14: 25965.
  • 48
    Baraczka K, Lakos G, Sipka S. Immunoserological changes in the cerebro-spinal fluid and serum in systemic lupus erythematosus patients with demyelinating syndrome and multiple sclerosis. Acta Neurol Scand 2002; 105: 37883.
  • 49
    Kovacs B, Lafferty TL, Brent LH, DeHoratius RJ. Transverse myelopathy in systemic lupus erythematosus: an analysis of 14 cases and review of the literature. Ann Rheum Dis 2000; 59: 1204.
  • 50
    Liou HH, Wang CR, Chen CJ, Chen RC, Chuang CY, Chiang IP, Tsai MC. Elevated levels of anticardiolipin antibodies and epilepsy in lupus patients. Lupus 1996; 5: 30712.
  • 51
    Sanna G, Bertolaccini ML, Cuadrado MJ, Laing H, Khamashta MA, Mathieu A, Hughes GR. Neuropsychiatric manifestations in systemic lupus erythematosus: prevalence and association with antiphospholipid antibodies. J Rheumatol 2003; 30: 98592.
  • 52
    Verrot D, San-Marco M, Dravet C, Genton P, Disdier P, Bolla G, Harle JR, Reynaud L, Weiller PJ. Prevalence and signification of antinuclear and anticardiolipin antibodies in patients with epilepsy. Am J Med 1997; 103: 337.
  • 53
    Cimaz R, Romeo A, Scarano A, Avcin T, Viri M, Veggiotti P, Gatti A, Lodi M, Catelli L, Panzeri P, Cecchini G, Meroni PL. Prevalence of anti-cardiolipin, anti-beta2 glycoprotein I, and anti-prothrombin antibodies in young patients with epilepsy. Epilepsia 2002; 43: 529.
  • 54
    Shoenfeld Y, Lev S, Blatt I, Blank M, Font J, Von Landenberg P, Lev N, Zaech J, Cervera R, Piette JC, Bertolaccini ML, Hughes GR, Youinou P, Meroni PL, Pengo V, Alves JD, Tincani A, Szegedi G, Lakos G, Sturfelt G, Jonsen A, Koike T, Sanmarco M, Ruffatti A, Ulcova-Gallova Z, Praprotnik S, Rozman B, Lorber M, Chapman J, Van-Breda-Vriezman PJ, Damoiseaux J. Features associated with epilepsy in the antiphospholipid syndrome. J Rheumatol 2004; 31: 13448.
  • 55
    Diogenes MJ, Diogenes PC, De Morais Carneiro RM, Neto CC, Duarte FB, Holanda RR. Cutaneous manifestations associated with antiphospholipid antibodies. Int J Dermatol 2004; 43: 6327.
  • 56
    Sebastiani GD, Galeazzi M, Tincani A, Piette JC, Font J, Allegri F, Mathieu A, Smolen J, De Ramon Garrido E, Fernandez-Nebro A, Jedryka-Goral A, Papasteriades C, Morozzi G, Bellisai F, De Pita O, Marcolongo R. Anticardiolipin and anti-beta2GPI antibodies in a large series of European patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Prevalence and clinical associations. European Concerted Action on the Immunogenetics of SLE. Scand J Rheumatol 1999; 28: 34451.
  • 57
    Ghirardello A, Doria A, Ruffatti A, Rigoli AM, Vesco P, Calligaro A, Gambari PF. Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) in systemic lupus erythematosus. Are they specific tools for the diagnosis of aPL syndrome? Ann Rheum Dis 1994; 53: 1402.
  • 58
    Sachse C, Luthke K, Hartung K, Fricke M, Liedvogel B, Kalden JR, Peter HH, Lakomek HJ, Henkel E, Deicher H. Significance of antibodies to cardiolipin in unselected patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: clinical and laboratory associations. The SLE Study Group. Rheumatol Int 1995; 15: 239.
  • 59
    Naldi L, Locati F, Marchesi L, Cortelazzo S, Finazzi G, Galli M, Brevi A, Cainelli T, Barbui T. Cutaneous manifestations associated with antiphospholipid antibodies in patients with suspected primary antiphospholipid syndrome: a case–control study. Ann Rheum Dis 1993; 52: 21922.
  • 60
    Vlachoyiannopoulos PG, Krilis SA, Hunt JE, Manoussakis MN, Moutsopoulos HM. Patients with anticardiolipin antibodies with and without antiphospholipid syndrome: their clinical features and beta 2-glycoprotein-I plasma levels. Eur J Clin Invest 1992; 22: 4827.
  • 61
    Toubi E, Krause I, Fraser A, Lev S, Stojanovich L, Rovensky J, Blank M, Shoenfeld Y. Livedo reticularis is a marker for predicting multi-system thrombosis in antiphospholipid syndrome. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2005; 23: 499504.
  • 62
    Frances C, Papo T, Wechsler B, Laporte JL, Biousse V, Piette JC. Sneddon syndrome with or without antiphospholipid antibodies. A comparative study in 46 patients. Medicine (Baltimore) 1999; 78: 20919.
  • 63
    Gibson GE, Su WP, Pittelkow MR. Antiphospholipid syndrome and the skin. J Am Acad Dermatol 1997; 36: 97082.
  • 64
    Hodak E, Feuerman H, Molad Y, Monselise Y, David M. Primary anetoderma: a cutaneous sign of antiphospholipid antibodies. Lupus 2003; 12: 5648.
  • 65
    Daugas E, Nochy D, Huong du LT, Duhaut P, Beaufils H, Caudwell V, Bariety J, Piette JC, Hill G. Antiphospholipid syndrome nephropathy in systemic lupus erythematosus. J Am Soc Nephrol 2002; 13: 4252.
  • 66
    Tektonidou MG, Sotsiou F, Nakopoulou L, Vlachoyiannopoulos PG, Moutsopoulos HM. Antiphospholipid syndrome nephropathy in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and antiphospholipid antibodies: prevalence, clinical associations, and long-term outcome. Arthritis Rheum 2004; 50: 256979.
  • 67
    Amigo MC, Garcia-Torres R, Robles M, Bochicchio T, Reyes PA. Renal involvement in primary antiphospholipid syndrome. J Rheumatol 1992; 19: 11815.
  • 68
    Nochy D, Daugas E, Droz D, Beaufils H, Grunfeld JP, Piette JC, Bariety J, Hill G. The intrarenal vascular lesions associated with primary antiphospholipid syndrome. J Am Soc Nephrol 1999; 10: 50718.
  • 69
    Kincaid-Smith P, Fairley KF, Kloss M. Lupus anticoagulant associated with renal thrombotic microangiopathy and pregnancy-related renal failure. Q J Med 1988; 68: 795815.
  • 70
    Moroni G, Ventura D, Riva P, Panzeri P, Quaglini S, Banfi G, Simonini P, Bader R, Meroni PL, Ponticelli C. Antiphospholipid antibodies are associated with an increased risk for chronic renal insufficiency in patients with lupus nephritis. Am J Kidney Dis 2004; 43: 2836.
  • 71
    Stasi R, Stipa E, Masi M, Oliva F, Sciarra A, Perrotti A, Olivieri M, Zaccari G, Gandolfo GM, Galli M, Barbui T, Papa G. Prevalence and clinical significance of elevated antiphospholipid antibodies in patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Blood 1994; 84: 42038.
  • 72
    Diz-Kucukkaya R, Hacihanefioglu A, Yenerel M, Turgut M, Keskin H, Nalcaci M, Inanc M. Antiphospholipid antibodies and antiphospholipid syndrome in patients presenting with immune thrombocytopenic purpura: a prospective cohort study. Blood 2001; 98: 17604.
  • 73
    Galli M, Daldossi M, Barbui T. Anti-glycoprotein Ib/IX and IIb/IIIa antibodies in patients with antiphospholipid antibodies. Thromb Haemost 1994; 71: 5715.
  • 74
    Macchi L, Rispal P, Clofent-Sanchez G, Pellegrin JL, Nurden P, Leng B, Nurden AT. Anti-platelet antibodies in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and the primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome: their relationship with the observed thrombocytopenia. Br J Haematol 1997; 98: 33641.
  • 75
    Galli M, Luciani D, Bertolini G, Barbui T. Lupus anticoagulants are stronger risk factors for thrombosis than anticardiolipin antibodies in the antiphospholipid syndrome: a systematic review of the literature. Blood 2003; 101: 182732.
  • 76
    Galli M, Barbui T. Antiphospholipid antibodies and pregnancy. Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 2003; 16: 21125.
  • 77
    Somers E, Magder LS, Petri M. Antiphospholipid antibodies and incidence of venous thrombosis in a cohort of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. J Rheumatol 2002; 29: 25316.
  • 78
    Jennings I, Greaves M, Mackie IJ, Kitchen S, Woods TA, Preston FE. Lupus anticoagulant testing: improvements in performance in a UK NEQAS proficiency testing exercise after dissemination of national guidelines on laboratory methods. Br J Haematol 2002; 119: 3649.
  • 79
    Arnout J, Meijer P, Vermylen J. Lupus anticoagulant testing in Europe: an analysis of results from the first European Concerted Action on Thrombophilia (ECAT) survey using plasmas spiked with monoclonal antibodies against human beta2-glycoprotein I. Thromb Haemost 1999; 81: 92934.
  • 80
    Gardiner C, MacKie IJ, Malia RG, Jones DW, Winter M, Leeming D, Taberner DA, Machin SJ, Greaves M. The importance of locally derived reference ranges and standardized calculation of dilute Russell's viper venom time results in screening for lupus anticoagulant. Br J Haematol 2000; 111: 12305.
  • 81
    Tripodi A, Biasiolo A, Chantarangkul V, Pengo V. Lupus anticoagulant (LA) testing: performance of clinical laboratories assessed by a national survey using lyophilized affinity-purified immunoglobulin with LA activity. Clin Chem 2003; 49: 160814.
  • 82
    Wisloff F, Jacobsen EM, Liestol S. Laboratory diagnosis of the antiphospholipid syndrome. Thromb Res 2002; 108: 26371.
  • 83
    Brandt JT, Triplett DA, Alving B, Scharrer I. Criteria for the diagnosis of lupus anticoagulants: an update. On behalf of the Subcommittee on Lupus Anticoagulant/Antiphospholipid Antibody of the Scientific and Standardisation Committee of the ISTH. Thromb Haemost 1995; 74: 118590.
  • 84
    Tripodi A, Chantarangkul V, Clerici M, Mannucci PM. Laboratory diagnosis of lupus anticoagulants for patients on oral anticoagulant treatment. Performance of dilute Russell viper venom test and silica clotting time in comparison with Staclot LA. Thromb Haemost 2002; 88: 5836.
  • 85
    Jacobsen EM, Barna-Cler L, Taylor JM, Triplett DA, Wisloff F. The evaluation of clotting times in the laboratory detection of lupus anticoagulants. Thromb Res 2001; 104: 27582.
  • 86
    Lupus Anticoagulant Working Party on behalf of the BCSH Haemostasis and Thrombosis Task Force. Guidelines on testing for the lupus anticoagulant. J Clin Pathol 1991; 44: 8859.
  • 87
    Greaves M, Cohen H, MacHin SJ, Mackie I. Guidelines on the investigation and management of the antiphospholipid syndrome. Br J Haematol 2000; 109: 70415.
  • 88
    Jacobsen EM, Barna-Cler L, Taylor JM, Triplett DA, Wisloff F. The Lupus Ratio test – an interlaboratory study on the detection of Lupus anticoagulants by an APTT-based, integrated, and semi-quantitative test. Fifth International Survey of Lupus Anticoagulants – ISLA 5. Thromb Haemost 2000; 83: 7048.
  • 89
    Simmelink MJ, Derksen RH, Arnout J, De Groot PG. A simple method to discriminate between beta2-glycoprotein I- and prothrombin-dependent lupus anticoagulants. J Thromb Haemost 2003; 1: 7407.
  • 90
    Pengo V, Biasiolo A, Pegoraro C, Iliceto S. A two-step coagulation test to identify antibeta-glycoprotein I lupus anticoagulants. J Thromb Haemost 2004; 2: 7027.
  • 91
    De Laat HB, Derksen RH, Urbanus RT, Roest M, De Groot PG. Beta2-glycoprotein I-dependent lupus anticoagulant highly correlates with thrombosis in the antiphospholipid syndrome. Blood 2004; 104: 3598602.
  • 92
    Reber G, Arvieux J, Comby E, Degenne D, De Moerloose P, Sanmarco M, Potron G. Multicenter evaluation of nine commercial kits for the quantitation of anticardiolipin antibodies. The Working Group on Methodologies in Haemostasis from the GEHT (Groupe d'Etudes sur l'Hemostase et la Thrombose). Thromb Haemost 1995; 73: 44452.
  • 93
    Favaloro EJ, Silvestrini R. Assessing the usefulness of anticardiolipin antibody assays: a cautious approach is suggested by high variation and limited consensus in multilaboratory testing. Am J Clin Pathol 2002; 118: 54857.
  • 94
    Harris EN. Special report. The Second International Anti-cardiolipin Standardization Workshop/the Kingston Anti-Phospholipid Antibody Study (KAPS) group. Am J Clin Pathol 1990; 94: 47684.
  • 95
    Bahar AM, Kwak JY, Beer AE, Kim JH, Nelson LA, Beaman KD, Gilman-Sachs A. Antibodies to phospholipids and nuclear antigens in non-pregnant women with unexplained spontaneous recurrent abortions. J Reprod Immunol 1993; 24: 21322.
  • 96
    Spadaro A, Riccieri V, Terracina S, Rinaldi T, Taccari E, Zoppini A. Class specific rheumatoid factors and antiphospholipid syndrome in systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus 2000; 9: 5660.
  • 97
    Scientific and Standardization Committee. Lupus AntiCoagulant/Phospholipid-dependent Antibodies. Annual Report. Boston: International Society for Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 2002.
  • 98
    Nash MJ, Camilleri RS, Kunka S, Mackie IJ, Machin SJ, Cohen H. The anticardiolipin assay is required for sensitive screening for antiphospholipid antibodies. J Thromb Haemost 2004; 2: 107781.
  • 99
    Ichikawa K, Tsutsumi A, Atsumi T, Matsuura E, Kobayashi S, Hughes GR, Khamashta MA, Koike T. A chimeric antibody with the human gamma1 constant region as a putative standard for assays to detect IgG beta2-glycoprotein I-dependent anticardiolipin and anti-beta2-glycoprotein I antibodies. Arthritis Rheum 1999; 42: 246170.
  • 100
    Tincani A, Allegri F, Sanmarco M, Cinquini M, Taglietti M, Balestrieri G, Koike T, Ichikawa K, Meroni P, Boffa MC. Anticardiolipin antibody assay: a methodological analysis for a better consensus in routine determinations – a cooperative project of the European Antiphospholipid Forum. Thromb Haemost 2001; 86: 57583.
  • 101
    Carmo-Pereira S, Bertolaccini ML, Escudero-Contreras A, Khamashta MA, Hughes GR. Value of IgA anticardiolipin and anti-beta2-glycoprotein I antibody testing in patients with pregnancy morbidity. Ann Rheum Dis 2003; 62: 5403.
  • 102
    Selva-O'Callaghan A, Ordi-Ros J, Monegal-Ferran F, Martinez N, Cortes-Hernandez F, Vilardell-Tarres M. IgA anticardiolipin antibodies – relation with other antiphospholipid antibodies and clinical significance. Thromb Haemost 1998; 79: 2825.
  • 103
    Bertolaccini ML, Atsumi T, Escudero Contreras A, Khamashta MA, Hughes GR. The value of IgA antiphospholipid testing for diagnosis of antiphospholipid (Hughes) syndrome in systemic lupus erythematosus. J Rheumatol 2001; 28: 263743.
  • 104
    Erkan D, Spicyn B, Peterson M, Derksen W, Sammaritano L, Pierangeli SS, Lockshin MD. Real world experience with aPL-degree of anticardiolipin antibody variation between assays. Thromb Res 2004; 114: 671.
  • 105
    Tajima C, Suzuki Y, Mizushima Y, Ichikawa Y. Clinical significance of immunoglobulin A antiphospholipid antibodies: possible association with skin manifestations and small vessel vasculitis. J Rheumatol 1998; 25: 17306.
  • 106
    Cucurull E, Gharavi AE, Diri E, Mendez E, Kapoor D, Espinoza LR. IgA anticardiolipin and anti-beta2-glycoprotein I are the most prevalent isotypes in African American patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Am J Med Sci 1999; 318: 5560.
  • 107
    Galli M, Luciani D, Bertolini G, Barbui T. Anti-beta 2-glycoprotein I, antiprothrombin antibodies, and the risk of thrombosis in the antiphospholipid syndrome. Blood 2003; 102: 271723.
  • 108
    Reber G, De Moerloose P. Anti-beta2-glycoprotein I antibodies – when and how should they be measured? Thromb Res 2004; 114: 52731.
  • 109
    Faden D, Tincani A, Tanzi P, Spatola L, Lojacono A, Tarantini M, Balestrieri G. Anti-beta 2 glycoprotein I antibodies in a general obstetric population: preliminary results on the prevalence and correlation with pregnancy outcome. Anti-beta2 glycoprotein I antibodies are associated with some obstetrical complications, mainly preeclampsia-eclampsia. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 1997; 73: 3742.
  • 110
    Lee RM, Branch DW, Silver RM. Immunoglobulin A anti-beta2-glycoprotein antibodies in women who experience unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion and unexplained fetal death. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2001; 185: 74853.
  • 111
    Reber G, Schousboe I, Tincani A, Sanmarco M, Kveder T, De Moerloose P, Boffa MC, Arvieux J. Inter-laboratory variability of anti-beta2-glycoprotein I measurement. A collaborative study in the frame of the European Forum on Antiphospholipid Antibodies Standardization Group. Thromb Haemost 2002; 88: 6673.
  • 112
    Reber G, Tincani A, Sanmarco M, De Moerloose P, Boffa MC. Proposals for the measurement of anti-beta2-glycoprotein I antibodies. Standardization group of the European Forum on Antiphospholipid Antibodies. J Thromb Haemost 2004; 2: 18602.
  • 113
    Audrain MA, El-Kouri D, Hamidou MA, Mioche L, Ibara A, Langlois ML, Muller JY. Value of autoantibodies to beta(2)-glycoprotein 1 in the diagnosis of antiphospholipid syndrome. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2002; 41: 5503.
  • 114
    Marai I, Gilburd B, Blank M, Shoenfeld Y. Anti-cardiolipin and anti-beta2-glycoprotein I (beta2GP-I) antibody assays as screening for anti-phospholipid syndrome. Hum Antibodies 2003; 12: 5762.
  • 115
    Lopez LR, Dier KJ, Lopez D, Merrill JT, Fink CA. Anti-beta 2-glycoprotein I and antiphosphatidylserine antibodies are predictors of arterial thrombosis in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome. Am J Clin Pathol 2004; 121: 1429.
  • 116
    Ebeling F, Pettersson T, Muukkonen L, Vahtera E, Rasi V. Beta-2-glycoprotein I antibodies in patients with thrombosis. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 2003; 63: 1118.
  • 117
    Fanopoulos D, Teodorescu MR, Varga J, Teodorescu M. High frequency of abnormal levels of IgA anti-beta2-glycoprotein I antibodies in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: relationship with antiphospholipid syndrome. J Rheumatol 1998; 25: 67580.
  • 118
    Diri E, Cucurull E, Gharavi AE, Kapoor D, Mendez EA, Scopelitis E, Wilson WA. Antiphospholipid (Hughes’) syndrome in African–Americans: IgA aCL and abeta2 glycoprotein-I is the most frequent isotype. Lupus 1999; 8: 2638.
  • 119
    Greco TP, Amos MD, Conti-Kelly AM, Naranjo JD, Ijdo JW. Testing for the antiphospholipid syndrome: importance of IgA anti-beta 2-glycoprotein I. Lupus 2000; 9: 3341.
  • 120
    Sanmarco M, Alessi MC, Harle JR, Sapin C, Aillaud MF, Gentile S, Juhan-Vague I, Weiller PJ. Antibodies to phosphatidylethanolamine as the only antiphospholipid antibodies found in patients with unexplained thromboses. Thromb Haemost 2001; 85: 8005.
  • 121
    Sugi T, Matsubayashi H, Inomo A, Dan L, Makino T. Antiphosphatidylethanolamine antibodies in recurrent early pregnancy loss and mid-to-late pregnancy loss. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2004; 30: 32632.
  • 122
    Bertolaccini ML, Atsumi T, Khamashta MA, Amengual O, Hughes GR. Autoantibodies to human prothrombin and clinical manifestations in 207 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. J Rheumatol 1998; 25: 11048.
  • 123
    Von Landenberg P, Matthias T, Zaech J, Schultz M, Lorber M, Blank M, Shoenfeld Y. Antiprothrombin antibodies are associated with pregnancy loss in patients with the antiphospholipid syndrome. Am J Reprod Immunol 2003; 49: 516.
  • 124
    Horbach DA, Van Oort E, Donders RC, Derksen RH, De Groot PG. Lupus anticoagulant is the strongest risk factor for both venous and arterial thrombosis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Comparison between different assays for the detection of antiphospholipid antibodies. Thromb Haemost 1996; 76: 91624.
  • 125
    Guerin J, Smith O, White B, Sweetman G, Feighery C, Jackson J. Antibodies to prothrombin in antiphospholipid syndrome and inflammatory disorders. Br J Haematol 1998; 102: 896902.
  • 126
    Forastiero RR, Martinuzzo ME, Cerrato GS, Kordich LC, Carreras LO. Relationship of anti beta2-glycoprotein I and anti prothrombin antibodies to thrombosis and pregnancy loss in patients with antiphospholipid antibodies. Thromb Haemost 1997; 78: 100814.
  • 127
    Munoz-Rodriguez FJ, Reverter JC, Font J, Tassies D, Cervera R, Espinosa G, Carmona F, Balasch J, Ordinas A, Ingelmo M. Prevalence and clinical significance of antiprothrombin antibodies in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus or with primary antiphospholipid syndrome. Haematologica 2000; 85: 6327.
  • 128
    Atsumi T, Ieko M, Bertolaccini ML, Ichikawa K, Tsutsumi A, Matsuura E, Koike T. Association of autoantibodies against the phosphatidylserine–prothrombin complex with manifestations of the antiphospholipid syndrome and with the presence of lupus anticoagulant. Arthritis Rheum 2000; 43: 198293.
  • 129
    Harris EN, Pierangeli SS. Revisiting the anticardiolipin test and its standardization. Lupus 2002; 11: 26975.
  • 130
    Wong RC, Gillis D, Adelstein S, Baumgart K, Favaloro EJ, Hendle MJ, Homes P, Pollock W, Smith S, Steele RH, Sturgess A, Wilson RJ. Consensus guidelines on anti-cardiolipin antibody testing and reporting. Pathology 2004; 36: 638.
  • 131
    The Criteria Committee of the New York Heart Association. Classification of functional capacity and objective assessment of patients with diseases of the heart. In: Nomenclature and Criteria for Diagnosis of Diseases of the Heart and Great Vessels, 9 edn. Boston: Little, Brown & Co, 1994: 2536.
  • 132
    Hojnik M, George J, Ziporen L, Shoenfeld Y. Heart valve involvement (Libman-Sacks endocarditis) in the antiphospholipid syndrome. Circulation 1996; 93: 157987.
  • 133
    Hochberg MC. Updating the American College of Rheumatology revised criteria for the classification of systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 1997; 40: 1725.
  • 134
    Tan EM, Cohen AS, Fries JF, Masi AT, McShane DJ, Rothfield NF, Schaller JG, Talal N, Winchester RJ. The 1982 revised criteria for the classification of systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 1982; 25: 12717.
  • 135
    Bizzaro N, Brandalise M. EDTA-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia. Association with antiplatelet and antiphospholipid antibodies. Am J Clin Pathol 1995; 103: 1037.
  • 136
    Arnout J. The pathogenesis of the antiphospholipid syndrome: a hypothesis based on parallelisms with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Thromb Haemost 1996; 75: 53641.