Summary. Background: Canine factor VII (cFVII) deficiency, an autosomal recessive trait originally identified in research Beagles, is associated with a mild to moderate bleeding tendency. Objective: Our aim was to identify and characterize the mutation causing cFVII deficiency. Methods: In order to sequence the coding regions of the cFVII gene, we cloned the cFVII cDNA. Genomic DNA and plasma from FVII-deficient Beagles and obligate carriers were utilized. Results: In all FVII-deficient dogs, we identified a single causative G to A missense mutation in exon 5, encoding the second epidermal growth factor-like domain, resulting in substitution of glycine 96 by glutamic acid, with plasma FVII coagulant activity of ≤ 4% in affected Beagles. In vitro expression indicated that the majority (96%) of cFVII-G96E protein was retained intracellularly. In addition, analysis of purified recombinant wild-type and mutant cFVII proteins demonstrated reduced activity of the mutant (< 2%) compared with wild-type. Rotational thromboelastometry revealed a severe impairment of clotting activity in affected Beagles, and heterozygotes also exhibited changes in coagulation-based assays. Using a mutation-specific polymerase chain reaction/restriction digest that allows rapid identification of the G96E mutation, we surveyed a US research Beagle colony and identified a mutant allelic frequency of 31%. Conclusions: We have identified a single causative mutation for cFVII deficiency that may have implications for pharmacotoxicologic research, because reduced FVII coagulant activity may alter hemostatic and/or cardiovascular endpoints in this commonly used animal species.