Plasma hemostatic factors and endothelial markers in four racial/ethnic groups: the MESA study

Authors


Aaron R. Folsom, 1300 South Second Street, Suite 300, Minneapolis, MN 55454, USA.
Tel.: 612 626 8862; fax: 612 624 0315; e-mail: folsom@epi.umn.edu

Abstract

Summary. Background: Hemostatic factors and endothelial markers may play some role in racial/ethnic differences in cardiovascular disease (CVD) rates. However, little information exists on hemostatic factors and endothelial markers across racial/ethnic groups. Objectives: To describe, in four American racial/ethnic groups (Caucasian, Black, Hispanic, and Chinese), mean levels of selected hemostatic factors and endothelial markers. Patients and methods: Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis baseline data were used (participant age: 45–84 years). Sex-specific analysis of covariance models, and t-tests for pairwise comparisons, were used to compare means of factors and markers. Adjustments were made for demographics and traditional CVD risk factors. Differences were significant at P < 0.05. Results: Blacks had the highest levels of factor VIII, D-Dimer, plasmin–antiplasmin (PAP), and von Willebrand factor, among the highest levels of fibrinogen and E-selectin (women only), but among the lowest levels of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), and, in men, the lowest levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). Whites and Hispanics tended to have intermediate levels of factors and markers, although they had the highest levels of ICAM-1, and Hispanics had the highest mean levels of fibrinogen and E-selectin (women only). Chinese participants had among the highest levels of PAI-1, but the lowest, or among the lowest, of all other factors and markers. No soluble thrombomodulin differences were observed. Conclusions: In this large cohort, hemostatic factor and endothelial marker mean levels varied by race/ethnicity, even after adjustment for traditional CVD risk factors.

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