• 1
    Athale UH, Chan AK. Thrombosis in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: part I. Epidemiology of thrombosis in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Thromb Res 2003; 111: 12531.
  • 2
    Caruso V, Iacoviello L, Di Castelnuovo A, Storti S, Mariani G, De Gaetono G, Donati MB. Thrombotic complications in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a meta-analysis of 17 prospective studies comprising 1752 pediatric patients. Blood 2006; 108: 221622.
  • 3
    Mitchell LG, Halton JM, Vegh PA, Barr RD, Venneri T, Pai KM, Andrew ME. Effect of disease and chemotherapy on hemostasis in children with acute lymphoid leukemia. Am J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 1994; 16: 1206.
  • 4
    Mitchell LG, Andrew M, Hanna K, Abshire T, Halton J, Anderson R, Cherrick I, Desai S, Mahoney D, McCuster P, Wu J, Dahl G, Chait P, De Veber G, Lee KJ, Mikulis D, Ginsberg J, Way C. A prospective cohort study determining the prevalence of thrombotic events in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and a central venous line who are treated with L-asparaginase: results of the Prophylactic Antithrombin Replacement in Kids with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Treated with Asparaginase (PARKAA) Study. Cancer 2003; 97: 50816.
  • 5
    Massicotte MP, Dix D, Monagle P, Adams M, Andrew M. Central venous catheter related thrombosis in children: analysis of the Canadian Registry of Venous Thromboembolic Complications. J Pediatr 1998; 133: 7706.
  • 6
    Sutor AH, Mall V, Thomas KB. Bleeding and thrombosis in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, treated according to the ALL-BFM-90 protocol. Klin Padiatr 1999; 211: 2014.
  • 7
    Farinasso L, Bertorello N, Garbarini L, Gajno TM, Barisone E, Artesani L, Valori A, Giacchino M, Pastore G, Saracco P. Risk factors of central venous lines-related thrombosis in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia during induction therapy: a prospective study. Leukemia 2007; 21: 5526.
  • 8
    Korte W, Feldges A, Baumgartner C, Ullmann S, Niederer V, Schmid L. Increased thrombin generation during fibrinogen and platelet recovery as an explanation for hypercoagulability in children with L-asparaginase therapy for ALL or NHL: a preliminary report. Klin Padiatr 1994; 206: 3313.
  • 9
    Mauz-Korholz C, Junker R, Gobel U, Nowak-Gottl U. Prothrombotic risk factors in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with delayed E. coli asparaginase (COALL-92 and 97 protocols). Thromb Haemost 2000; 83: 8403.
  • 10
    Nowak-Gottl U, Wermes C, Junker R, Koch HG, Schobess R, Fleischhack G, Schwabe D, Ehrenforth S. Prospective evaluation of the thrombotic risk in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia carrying the MTHFR TT 677 genotype, the prothrombin G20210A variant, and further prothrombotic risk factors. Blood 1999; 93: 15959.
  • 11
    Nowak-Gottl U, Heinecke A, Von Kries R, Nurnberger W, Munchow N, Junker R. Thrombotic events revisited in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: impact of concomitant Escherichia coli asparaginase/prednisone administration. Thromb Res 2001; 103: 16572.
  • 12
    Priest JR, Ramsay NK, Steinherz PG, Tubergen DG, Cairo MS, Sitarz AL, Bishop AJ, White L, Trigg ME, Levitt CJ, Cich JA, Coccia PF. A syndrome of thrombosis and hemorrhage complicating L-asparaginase therapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. J Pediatr 1982; 100: 9849.
  • 13
    Shapiro AD, Clarke SL, Christian JM, Odom LF, Hathaway WE. Thrombosis in children receiving L-asparaginase. Determining patients at risk. Am J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 1993; 15: 4005.
  • 14
    Ruud E, Holmstrom H, De Lange C, Natvig S, Albertsen BK, Wesenberg F. Thrombotic effects of asparaginase in two acute lymphoblastic leukemia protocols (NOPHO ALL-1992 versus NOPHO ALL-2000): a single-institution study. Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2006; 23: 20716.
  • 15
    Kaste SC, Gronemeyer SA, Hoffer FA, Mandrell BN, Wilimas JA. Pilot study of noninvasive detection of venous occlusions from central venous access devices in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Pediatr Radiol 1999; 29: 5704.
  • 16
    Monagle P, Chan A, Massicotte P, Chalmers E, Michelson AD. Antithrombotic therapy in children: the Seventh ACCP Conference on Antithrombotic and Thrombolytic Therapy. Chest 2004; 126: 645S87S.
  • 17
    Kahn SR, Ginsberg JS. The post-thrombotic syndrome: current knowledge, controversies, and directions for future research. Blood Rev 2002; 16: 15565.
  • 18
    Kuhle S, Koloshuk B, Marzinotto V, Bauman M, Massicotte P, Andrew M, Chan A, Abdolell M, Mitchell L. A cross-sectional study evaluating post-thrombotic syndrome in children. Thromb Res 2003; 111: 22733.
  • 19
    Van Ommen CH, Ottenkamp J, Lam J, Brennickmeier M, Heijmans HS, Buller HR, Peters M. The risk of postthrombotic syndrome in children with congenital heart disease. J Pediatr 2002; 141: 5826.
  • 20
    Mitchell L, Andrew M, Hanna K, Abshire T, Halton J, Wu J, Anderson R, Cherrick I, Desai S, Mahoney D, McCusker P, Chait P, Abdolell M, De Veber G, Mikulis D. Trend to efficacy and safety using antithrombin concentrate in prevention of thrombosis in children receiving l-asparaginase for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Results of the PAARKA study. Thromb Haemost 2003; 90: 23544.
  • 21
    Boulden BM, Crary SE, Buchanan GR, Journeycake JM. Determination of pediatric norms for assessment of upper venous system post-thrombotic syndrome. J Thromb Haemost 2007; 5: 10779.
  • 22
    Simel DL, Samsa GP, Matchar DB. Likelihood ratios with confidence: sample size estimation for diagnostic test studies. J Clin Epidemiol 1991; 44: 76370.
  • 23
    Goldenberg NA, Knapp-Clevenger R, Manco-Johnson MJ. Elevated plasma factor VIII and D-dimer levels as predictors of poor outcomes of thrombosis in children. N Engl J Med 2004; 351: 10818.
  • 24
    Van Ommen CH, Heijboer H, Van Den Dool EJ, Hutten BA, Peters M. Pediatric venous thromboembolic disease in one single center: congenital prothrombotic disorders and the clinical outcome. J Thromb Haemost 2003; 1: 251622.
  • 25
    Anton N, Cox P, Massicotte-Nolan P, Dinyari M, Vegh P, Michell LG. No difference in incidence of thrombosis between heparin bonded catheters and non heparin bonded catheters in infants in the critical care unit following surgery for congenital heart disease: A randomised triple blind study. J Thromb Haemost 2005; 3: 1726 (Abstract).
  • 26
    Babyn PS, Gahunia HK, Massicotte P. Pulmonary thromboembolism in children. Pediatr Radiol 2005; 35: 25874.
  • 27
    Barnes C, Newall F, Monagle P. Post-thrombotic syndrome. Arch Dis Child 2002; 86: 2124.
  • 28
    Derish MT, Smith DW, Frankel LR. Venous catheter thrombus formation and pulmonary embolism in children. Pediatr Pulmonol 1995; 20: 34954.
  • 29
    Randolph AG, Cook DJ, Gonzales CA, Andrew M. Benefit of heparin in central venous and pulmonary artery catheters: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Chest 1998; 113: 16571.
  • 30
    Wille-Jorgensen P, Jorgensen LN, Crawford M. Asymptomatic postoperative deep vein thrombosis and the development of postthrombotic syndrome. A systematic review and meta-analysis. Thromb Haemost 2005; 93: 23641.
  • 31
    Prandoni P, Lensing AW, Cogo A, Cuppini S, Villalta S, Carta M, Cattelan AM, Polistena P, Bernardi E, Prins MH. The long-term clinical course of acute deep venous thrombosis. Ann Intern Med 1996; 125: 17.
  • 32
    Schindler OS, Dalziel R. Post-thrombotic syndrome after total hip or knee arthroplasty: incidence in patients with asymptomatic deep venous thrombosis. J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong) 2005; 13: 1139.
  • 33
    Journeycake JM, Eshelman D, Buchanan GR. Post-thrombotic syndrome is uncommon in childhood cancer survivors. J Pediatr 2006; 148: 2757.
  • 34
    Ruud E, Holmstrom H, Hopp E, Wesenberg F. Central line-associated venous late effects in children without prior history of thrombosis. Acta Paediatr 2006; 95: 10605.
  • 35
    Bergqvist D, Jendteg S, Johansen L, Persson U, Odegaard K. Cost of long-term complications of deep venous thrombosis of the lower extremities: an analysis of a defined patient population in Sweden. Ann Intern Med 1997; 126: 4547.
  • 36
    Kahn SR, Ducruet T, Lamping DL, Arsenault L, Miron MJ, Roussin A, Desmarais S, Joyal F, Kassis J, Solymoss S, Desjardins L, Johri M, Shrier I. Prospective evaluation of health-related quality of life in patients with deep venous thrombosis. Arch Intern Med 2005; 165: 11738.