Summary. MHC class II molecules are essential for shaping the CD4+ T-cell repertoire in the thymus and for selecting antigenic peptides that are presented to CD4+ T cells in the periphery. A range of different mouse models humanized for HLA class II antigens have been developed to study the regulation of MHC-class II restricted immune responses. These mouse models have been used to identify immunodominant peptides that trigger diseases and to characterize the interactions of T-cell receptors with disease-associated peptides and MHC class II molecules. Peptides presented to CD4+ T cells in these mouse models were shown to be similar to peptides presented to CD4+ T cells in patients who carry the same MHC class II haplotype. Opportunities and limitations associated with these mouse models will be discussed and the potential application of these models for understanding the regulation of antibody responses against factor VIII in hemophilia A will be indicated.