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- Calcium store release in platelets
- Major calcium stores in platelets
- Store-operated calcium entry in platelets
- Membrane Ca2+ ATPases in platelets
- Platelet calcium entry mechanisms as potential therapeutic targets
- Disclosure of Conflict of Interests
Summary. Agonist-induced elevation in cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations is essential for platelet activation in hemostasis and thrombosis. It occurs through Ca2+ release from intracellular stores and Ca2+ entry through the plasma membrane (PM). Ca2+ store release is a well-established process involving phospholipase (PL)C-mediated production of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3), which in turn releases Ca2+ from the intracellular stores through IP3 receptor channels. In contrast, the mechanisms controlling Ca2+ entry and the significance of this process for platelet activation have been elucidated only very recently. In platelets, as in other non-excitable cells, the major way of Ca2+ entry involves the agonist-induced release of cytosolic sequestered Ca2+ followed by Ca2+ influx through the PM, a process referred to as store-operated calcium entry (SOCE). It is now clear that stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1), a Ca2+ sensor molecule in intracellular stores, and the four transmembrane channel protein Orai1 are the key players in platelet SOCE. The other major Ca2+ entry mechanism is mediated by the direct receptor-operated calcium (ROC) channel, P2X1. Besides these, canonical transient receptor potential channel (TRPC) 6 mediates Ca2+ entry through the PM. This review summarizes the current knowledge of platelet Ca2+ homeostasis with a focus on the newly identified Ca2+ entry mechanisms.