• 1
    Büller HR, Agnelli G, Hull RD, Hyers TM, Prins MH, Raskob GE. Antithrombotic therapy for venous thromboembolic disease: the Seventh ACCP Conference on Antithrombotic and Thrombolytic Therapy. Chest 2004; 126: 401S28S.
  • 2
    Koopman MM, Prandoni P, Piovella F, Ockelford PA, Brandjes DP, Van Der Meer J, Gallus AS, Simonneau G, Chesterman CH, Prins MH. Treatment of deep venous thrombosis with intravenous unfractionated heparin administered in the hospital as compared with subcutaneous low-molecular-weight heparin administered at home. The Tasman study group. N Engl J Med 1996; 334: 6827.
  • 3
    Aujesky D, Smith KJ, Cornuz J, Roberts MS. Cost-effectiveness of low-molecular-weight heparin for treatment of pulmonary embolism. Chest 2005; 128: 160110.
  • 4
    Levine M, Gent M, Hirsh J, Leclerc J, Anderson D, Weitz J, Ginsberg J, Turpie AG, Demers C, Kovacs M. A comparison of low-molecular-weight heparin administered primarily at home with unfractionated heparin administered in the hospital for proximal deep-vein thrombosis. N Engl J Med 1996; 334: 67781.
  • 5
    Wells PS, Kovacs MJ, Bormanis J, Forgie MA, Goudie D, Morrow B, Kovacs J. Expanding eligibility for outpatient treatment of deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism with low molecular-weight heparin. A comparison of patient self-injection with homecare injection. Arch Intern Med 1998; 1158: 180912.
  • 6
    Harrison L, McGinnis J, Crowther M, Ginsberg J, Hirsh J. Assessment of outpatient treatment of deep vein thrombosis with low molecular heparin. Arch Intern Med 1998; 158: 20013.
  • 7
    Douketis JD. Prognosis in pulmonary embolism. Curr Opin Pulm Med 2001; 7: 3549.
  • 8
    Aujesky D, Obrosky DS, Stone RA, Auble TE, Perrier A, Cornuz J, Roy PM, Fine MJ. A prediction rule to identify low-risk patients with pulmonary embolism. Arch Intern Med 2006; 166: 16975.
  • 9
    Hall C. Essential biochemistry and physiology of NT-proBNP. Eur J Heart Fail 2004; 6: 25760.
  • 10
    Klok FA, Mos ICM, Huisman MV. Brain-type natriuretic peptide levels in the prediction of adverse outcome in patients with pulmonary embolism. Am J Resp Crit Care Med 2008; 178: 42530.
  • 11
    Coutance G, Le Page O, Lo T, Hamon M. Prognostic value of brain natriuretic peptide in acute pulmonary embolism. Crit Care 2008; 14: R109.
  • 12
    Ten Wolde M, Tulevski II, Mulder JW, Söhne M, Boomsma F, Mulder BJ, Büller HR. Brain natriuretic peptide as a predictor of adverse outcome in patients with pulmonary embolism. Circulation 2003; 107: 20824.
  • 13
    Kucher N, Printzen G, Goldhaber SZ. Prognostic role of brain natriuretic peptide in acute pulmonary embolism. Circulation 2003; 107: 25457.
  • 14
    Logeart D, Lecuyer L, Thabut G, Tabet JY, Tartière JM, Chavelas C, Bonnin F, Stievenart JL, Solal AC. Biomarker-based strategy for screening right ventricular dysfunction in patients with non-massive pulmonary embolism. Intensive Care Med 2007; 33: 28692.
  • 15
    Kucher N, Printzen G, Doernhoefer T, Windecker S, Meier B, Hess OM. Low pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels predict benign clinical outcome in acute pulmonary embolism. Circulation 2003; 107: 15768.
  • 16
    Pruszczyk P, Kostrubiec M, Bochowicz A, Styczyński G, Szulc M, Kurzyna M, Fijałkowska A, Kuch-Wocial A, Chlewicka I, Torbicki A. N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide in patients with acute pulmonary embolism. Eur Respir J 2003; 22: 64953.
  • 17
    Binder L, Pieske B, Olschewski M, Geibel A, Klostermann B, Reiner C, Konstantinides S. N-terminal Pro-Brain Natriuretic peptide or troponin testing followed by echocardiography for risk stratification of acute pulmonary embolism. Circulation 2005; 112: 15739.
  • 18
    Kostrubiec M, Pruszczyk P, Bochowicz A, Pacho R, Szulc M, Kaczynska A, Styczynski G, Kuch-Wocial A, Abramczyk P, Bartoszewicz Z, Berent H, Kuczynska K. Biomarker-based risk assessment model in acute pulmonary embolism. Eur Heart J 2005; 26: 216672.
  • 19
    Vuilleumier N, Le Gal G, Verschuren F, Perrier A, Bounameaux H, Turck N, Sanchez JC, Mensi N, Perneger T, Hochstrasser D, Righini M. Cardiac biomarkers for risk stratification in non massive pulmonary embolism: a multicenter prospective study. J Thromb Haemost 2009; 7: 3918.
  • 20
    Lega JC, Lacasse Y, Lakhal L, Provencher S. Natriuretic peptides and troponins in pulmonary embolism: a meta-analysis. Thorax 2009; 64: 86975.
  • 21
    The Columbus Investigators. Low-molecular-weight heparin in the treatment of patients with venous thromboembolism. N Engl J Med 1997; 337: 65762.
  • 22
    Simonneau G, Sors H, Charbonnier B, Page Y, Laaban JP, Azarian R, Laurent M, Hirsch JL, Ferrari E, Bosson JL, Mottier D, Beau B. A comparison of low-molecular-weight heparin with unfractionated heparin for acute pulmonary embolism. N Engl J Med 1997; 337: 6639.
  • 23
    Caprini JA, Tapson VF, Hyers TM, Waldo AL, Wittkowsky AK, Friedman R, Colgan KJ, Shillington AC; NABOR Steering Committee. Treatment of venous thromboembolism: adherence to guidelines and impact of physician knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs. J Vasc Surg 2005; 42: 72633.
  • 24
    Panis JJGG, Kolbach DN, Hamulyák K, Prins MH. Identifying inappropriate hospital stay in patients with venous thromboembolism. Eur J Intern Med 2004; 15: 3944.
  • 25
    Van Der Meer RW, Pattynama PM, Van Strijen MJ, Van Den Berg-Huijsmans AA, Hartmann IJ, Putter H, De Roos A, Huisman MV. Right ventricular dysfunction and pulmonary obstruction index at helical CT: prediction of clinical outcome during 3-month follow-up in patients with acute pulmonary embolism. Radiology 2005; 235: 798803.
  • 26
    Schulman S, Kearon C. Definition of major bleeding in clinical investigations of antihemostatic medicinal products in nonsurgical patients. J Thromb Haemost 2005; 3: 6924.
  • 27
  • 28
    Meignan M, Rosso J, Gauthier H, Brunengo F, Claudel S, Sagnard L, D’Azemar P, Simonneau G, Charbonnier B. Systematic lung scans reveal a high frequency of silent pulmonary embolism in patients with proximal deep venous thrombosis. Arch Intern Med 2000; 160: 15964.
  • 29
    Agterof MJ, Van Bladel ER, Schutgens RE, Snijder RJ, Tromp EA, Prins MH, Biesma DH. Risk stratification of patients with pulmonary embolism based on pulse rate and D-dimer concentration. Thromb Haemost 2009; 4: 6837.
  • 30
    Kovacs MJ, Anderson D, Morrow B, Gray L, Touchie D, Wells PS. Outpatient treatment of pulmonary embolism with dalteparin. Thromb Haemost 2000; 83: 20911.
  • 31
    Beer JH, Burger M, Gretener S, Bernard-Bagattini S, Bounameaux H. Outpatient treatment of pulmonary embolism is feasible and safe in a substantial proportion of patients. Thromb Haemost 2003; 1: 1867.
  • 32
    Siragusa S, Arcara C, Malato A, Anastasio R, Valerio MR, Fulfaro F, Lo Coco L, Grimaudo S, Bajardi G, Abbadessa V, Gebbia N. Home therapy for deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in cancer patients. Ann Oncol 2005; 4: 1369.
  • 33
    Wells PS, Anderson DR, Rodger MA, Forgie MA, Florack P, Touchie D, Morrow B, Gray L, O’Rourke K, Wells G, Kovacs J, Kovacs MJ. A randomized trial comparing 2 low-molecular-weight heparins for the outpatient treatment of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Arch Intern Med 2005; 165: 7338.
  • 34
    Olsson CG, Bitzén U, Olsson B, Magnusson P, Carlsson MS, Jonson B, Bajc M. Outpatient tinzaparin therapy in pulmonary embolism quantified with ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy. Med Sci Monit 2006; 12: I9.
  • 35
    Davies CWH, Wimperis J, Green ES. Early discharge of patients with pulmonary embolism: a two-phase observational study. Eur Respir J 2007; 30: 70814.
  • 36
    Goldhaber SZ. Thrombolysis in pulmonary embolism: a debatable indication. Thromb Haemost 2001; 86: 44451.
  • 37
    Bova C, Pesavento R, Marchiori A, Palla A, Enea I, Pengo V, Visonà A, Noto A, Prandoni P; TELESIO Study Group. Risk stratification and outcomes in hemodynamically stable patients with acute pulmonary embolism; a prospective, multicentre, cohort study with three months of follow-up. J Thromb Haemost 2009; 7: 93844.
  • 38
    Hama N, Itoh H, Shirakami G, Nakagawa O, Suga S, Ogawa Y, Masuda I, Nakanishi K, Yoshimasa T, Hashimoto Y. Rapid ventricular induction of brain natriuretic peptide gene expression in experimental acute myocardial infarction. Circulation 1995; 92: 155864.