• 1
    Simonet WS, Lacey DL, Dunstan CR, Kelley M, Chang MS, Luthy R, Nguyen HQ, Wooden S, Bennett L, Boone T, Shimamoto G, DeRose M, Elliott R, Colombero A, Tan HL, Trail G, Sullivan J, Davy E, Bucay N, Renshaw-Gegg L, et al. Osteoprotegerin: a novel secreted protein involved in the regulation of bone density. Cell 1997; 89: 30919.
  • 2
    Yasuda H, Shima N, Nakagawa N, Yamaguchi K, Kinosaki M, Mochizuki S-i, Tomoyasu A, Yano K, Goto M, Murakami A, Tsuda E, Morinaga T, Higashio K, Udagawa N, Takahashi N, Suda T. Osteoclast differentiation factor is a ligand for osteoprotegerin/osteoclastogenesis-inhibitory factor and is identical to TRANCE/RANKL. PNAS 1998; 95: 3597602.
  • 3
    Emery JG, McDonnell P, Burke MB, Deen KC, Lyn S, Silverman C, Dul E, Appelbaum ER, Eichman C, DiPrinzio R, Dodds RA, James IE, Rosenberg M, Lee JC, Young PR. Osteoprotegerin Is a Receptor for the Cytotoxic Ligand TRAIL. J Biol Chem 1998; 273: 143637.
  • 4
    Reid P, Holen I. Pathophysiological roles of osteoprotegerin (OPG). Eur J Cell Biol 2009; 88: 117.
  • 5
    Malyankar UM, Scatena M, Suchland KL, Yun TJ, Clark EA, Giachelli CM. Osteoprotegerin is an alpha vbeta 3-induced, NF-kappa B-dependent Survival Factor for Endothelial Cells. J Biol Chem 2000; 275: 2095962.
  • 6
    Bord S, Frith E, Ireland DC, Scott MA, Craig JI, Compston JE. Synthesis of osteoprotegerin and RANKL by megakaryocytes is modulated by oestrogen. Br J Haematol 2004; 126: 24451.
  • 7
    Jono S, Ikari Y, Shioi A, Mori K, Miki T, Hara K, Nishizawa Y. Serum osteoprotegerin levels are associated with the presence and severity of coronary artery disease. Circulation 2002; 106: 11924.
  • 8
    Schoppet M, Sattler AM, Schaefer JR, Herzum M, Maisch B, Hofbauer LC. Increased osteoprotegerin serum levels in men with coronary artery disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003; 88: 10248.
  • 9
    Crisafulli A, Micari A, Altavilla D, Saporito F, Sardella A, Passaniti M, Raffa S, D’Anneo G, Luca F, Mioni C, Arrigo F, Squadrito F. Serum levels of osteoprotegerin and RANKL in patients with ST elevation acute myocardial infarction. Clin Sci (Lond) 2005; 109: 38995.
  • 10
    Ueland T, Jemtland R, Godang K, Kjekshus J, Hognestad A, Omland T, Squire IB, Gullestad L, Bollerslev J, Dickstein K, Aukrust P. Prognostic value of osteoprotegerin in heart failure after acute myocardial infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol 2004; 44: 19706.
  • 11
    Golledge J, McCann M, Mangan S, Lam A, Karan M. Osteoprotegerin and Osteopontin Are Expressed at High Concentrations Within Symptomatic Carotid Atherosclerosis. Stroke 2004; 35: 163641.
  • 12
    Nybo M, Rasmussen LM. The capability of plasma osteoprotegerin as a predictor of cardiovascular disease: a systematic literature review. Eur J Endocrinol 2008; 159: 6038.
  • 13
    Browner WS, Lui LY, Cummings SR. Associations of serum osteoprotegerin levels with diabetes, stroke, bone density, fractures, and mortality in elderly women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001; 86: 6317.
  • 14
    Lieb W, Gona P, Larson MG, Massaro JM, Lipinska I, Keaney JF Jr, Rong J, Corey D, Hoffmann U, Fox CS, Vasan RS, Benjamin EJ, O’Donnell CJ, Kathiresan S. Biomarkers of the Osteoprotegerin Pathway. Clinical Correlates, Subclinical Disease, Incident Cardiovascular Disease, and Mortality. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2010; 30: 184954.
  • 15
    Kiechl S, Schett G, Wenning G, Redlich K, Oberhollenzer M, Mayr A, Santer P, Smolen J, Poewe W, Willeit J. Osteoprotegerin is a risk factor for progressive atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Circulation 2004; 109: 217580.
  • 16
    Semb AG, Ueland T, Aukrust P, Wareham NJ, Luben R, Gullestad L, Kastelein JJ, Khaw KT, Boekholdt SM. Osteoprotegerin and soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand and risk for coronary events: a nested case-control approach in the prospective EPIC-Norfolk population study 1993-2003. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2009; 29: 97580.
  • 17
    Nybo M, Johnsen SP, Dethlefsen C, Overvad K, Tjonneland A, Jorgensen JO, Rasmussen LM. Lack of observed association between high plasma osteoprotegerin concentrations and ischemic stroke risk in a healthy population. Clin Chem 2008; 54: 196974.
  • 18
    Vik A, Mathiesen EB, Johnsen SH, Brox J, Wilsgaard T, Njolstad I, Hansen JB. Serum osteoprotegerin, sRANKL and carotid plaque formation and growth in a general population – The Tromso Study. J Thromb Haemost 2010; 8: 898905.
  • 19
    WHO MONICA Project Principal Investigators. The World Health Organization MONICA Project (monitoring trends and determinants in cardiovascular disease): a major international collaboration. J Clin Epidemiol 1988; 41: 10514.
  • 20
    Ueland T, Wilson SG, Islam FMA, Mullin B, Devine A, Bollerslev J, Zhu K, Prince RL. A cohort study of the effects of serum osteoprotegerin and osteoprotegerin gene polymorphisms on cardiovascular mortality in elderly women. Clin Endocrinol 2009; 71: 82833.
  • 21
    Omland T, Ueland T, Jansson AM, Persson A, Karlsson T, Smith C, Herlitz J, Aukrust P, Hartford M, Caidahl K. Circulating osteoprotegerin levels and long-term prognosis in patients with acute coronary syndromes. J Am Coll Cardiol 2008; 51: 62733.
  • 22
    Zhang J, Fu M, Myles D, Zhu X, Du J, Cao X, Chen YE. PDGF induces osteoprotegerin expression in vascular smooth muscle cells by multiple signal pathways. FEBS Lett 2002; 521: 1804.
  • 23
    Libby P, Ridker PM, Maseri A. Inflammation and atherosclerosis. Circulation 2002; 105: 113543.
  • 24
    Bucay N, Sarosi I, Dunstan CR, Morony S, Tarpley J, Capparelli C, Scully S, Tan HL, Xu W, Lacey DL, Boyle WJ, Simonet WS. Osteoprotegerin-deficient mice develop early onset osteoporosis and arterial calcification. Genes Dev 1998; 12: 12608.
  • 25
    Morony S, Tintut Y, Zhang Z, Cattley RC, Van G, Dwyer D, Stolina M, Kostenuik PJ, Demer LL. Osteoprotegerin inhibits vascular calcification without affecting atherosclerosis in ldlr(−/−) mice. Circulation 2008; 117: 41120.
  • 26
    Bennett BJ, Scatena M, Kirk EA, Rattazzi M, Varon RM, Averill M, Schwartz SM, Giachelli CM, Rosenfeld ME. Osteoprotegerin inactivation accelerates advanced atherosclerotic lesion progression and calcification in older ApoE−/− mice. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2006; 26: 211724.
  • 27
    Vik A, Mathiesen EB, Noto AT, Sveinbjornsson B, Brox J, Hansen JB. Serum osteoprotegerin is inversely associated with carotid plaque echogenicity in humans. Atherosclerosis 2007; 191: 12834.
  • 28
    Kadoglou NP, Gerasimidis T, Golemati S, Kapelouzou A, Karayannacos PE, Liapis CD. The relationship between serum levels of vascular calcification inhibitors and carotid plaque vulnerability. J Vasc Surg 2008; 47: 5562.
  • 29
    Fiotti N, Altamura N, Orlando C, Simi L, Reimers B, Pascotto P, Zingone B, Pascotto A, Serio M, Guarnieri G, Giansante C. Metalloproteinases-2, -9 and TIMP-1 expression in stable and unstable coronary plaques undergoing PCI. Int J Cardiol 2008; 127: 3507.
  • 30
    Zannettino AC, Holding CA, Diamond P, Atkins GJ, Kostakis P, Farrugia A, Gamble J, To LB, Findlay DM, Haynes DR. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is localized to the Weibel-Palade bodies of human vascular endothelial cells and is physically associated with von Willebrand factor. J Cell Physiol 2005; 204: 71423.
  • 31
    Breland UM, Hollan I, Saatvedt K, Almdahl SM, Damas JK, Yndestad A, Mikkelsen K, Forre OT, Aukrust P, Ueland T. Inflammatory markers in patients with coronary artery disease with and without inflammatory rheumatic disease. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2010; 6: 111827.
  • 32
    Libby P. How our growing understanding of inflammation has reshaped the way we think of disease and drug development. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2010; 87: 38991.