• 1
    Agnelli G, Prandoni P, Santamaria MG, Bagatella P, Iorio A, Bazzan M, Moia M, Guazzaloca G, Bertoldi A, Tomasi C, Scannapieco G, Ascani A, Villalta S, Frulla M, Mosena L, Girolami A, Vaccarino A, Alatri A, Palareti G, Marchesi M, et al. Three months versus one year of oral anticoagulant therapy for idiopathic deep venous thrombosis. N Engl J Med 2001; 345: 1659.
  • 2
    Kearon C, Gent M, Hirsh J, Weitz J, Kovacs MJ, Anderson DR, Turpie AG, Green D, Ginsberg JS, Wells P, MacKinnon B, Julian JA, Johnston M, Douketis J, Roberts R, van Nguyen P, Kassis J, Dolan S, Demers C, Desjardins L, et al. A comparison of three months of anticoagulation with extended anticoagulation for a first episode of idiopathic venous thromboembolism. N Engl J Med 1999; 340: 9017.
  • 3
    Prandoni P, Noventa F, Ghirarduzzi A, Pengo V, Bernardi E, Pesavento R, Iotti M, Tormene D, Simioni P, Pagnan A. The risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism after discontinuing anticoagulation in patients with acute proximal deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. A prospective cohort study in 1,626 patients. Haematologica 2007; 92: 199205.
  • 4
    Ridker PM, Goldhaber SZ, Danielson E, Rosenberg Y, Eby CS, Deitcher SR, Cushman M, Moll S, Kessler CM, Elliott CG, Paulson R, Wong T, Bauer KA, Schwartz BA, Miletich JP, Bounameaux H, Glynn RJ. Long-term, low-intensity warfarin therapy for the prevention of recurrent venous thromboembolism. N Engl J Med 2003; 348: 142534.
  • 5
    Agnelli G, Prandoni P, Becattini C, Silingardi M, Taliani MR, Miccio M, Imberti D, Poggio R, Ageno W, Pogliani E, Porro F, Zonzin P. Extended oral anticoagulant therapy after a first episode of pulmonary embolism. Ann Intern Med 2003; 139: 1925.
  • 6
    Kearon C, Ginsberg JS, Kovacs MJ, Anderson DR, Wells P, Julian JA, MacKinnon B, Weitz JI, Crowther MA, Dolan S, Turpie AG, Geerts W, Solymoss S, van Nguyen P, Demers C, Kahn SR, Kassis J, Rodger M, Hambleton J, Gent M. Comparison of low-intensity warfarin therapy with conventional-intensity warfarin therapy for long-term prevention of recurrent venous thromboembolism. N Engl J Med 2003; 349: 6319.
  • 7
    Carrier M, Le Gal G, Wells PS, Rodger MA. Systematic review: case-fatality rates of recurrent venous thromboembolism and major bleeding events among patients treated for venous thromboembolism. Ann Intern Med 2010; 152: 57889.
  • 8
    Rodger MA, Kahn SR, Wells PS, Anderson DA, Chagnon I, Le Gal G, Solymoss S, Crowther M, Perrier A, White R, Vickars L, Ramsay T, Betancourt MT, Kovacs MJ. Identifying unprovoked thromboembolism patients at low risk for recurrence who can discontinue anticoagulant therapy. CMAJ 2008; 179: 41726.
  • 9
    Zhu T, Martinez I, Emmerich J. Venous thromboembolism: risk factors for recurrence. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2009; 29: 298310.
  • 10
    Cosmi B, Legnani C, Iorio A, Pengo V, Ghirarduzzi A, Testa S, Poli D, Tripodi A, Palareti G. Residual venous obstruction, alone and in combination with D-dimer, as a risk factor for recurrence after anticoagulation withdrawal following a first idiopathic deep vein thrombosis in the prolong study. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2010; 39: 35665.
  • 11
    Young L, Ockelford P, Milne D, Rolfe-Vyson V, McKelvie S, Harper P. Post-treatment residual thrombus increases the risk of recurrent deep vein thrombosis and mortality. J Thromb Haemost 2006; 4: 191924.
  • 12
    Piovella F, Crippa L, Barone M, Vigano D’Angelo S, Serafini S, Galli L, Beltrametti C, D’Angelo A. Normalization rates of compression ultrasonography in patients with a first episode of deep vein thrombosis of the lower limbs: association with recurrence and new thrombosis. Haematologica 2002; 87: 51522.
  • 13
    Prandoni P, Lensing AW, Prins MH, Bernardi E, Marchiori A, Bagatella P, Frulla M, Mosena L, Tormene D, Piccioli A, Simioni P, Girolami A. Residual venous thrombosis as a predictive factor of recurrent venous thromboembolism. Ann Intern Med 2002; 137: 95560.
  • 14
    Prandoni P, Prins MH, Lensing AW, Ghirarduzzi A, Ageno W, Imberti D, Scannapieco G, Ambrosio GB, Pesavento R, Cuppini S, Quintavalla R, Agnelli G. Residual thrombosis on ultrasonography to guide the duration of anticoagulation in patients with deep venous thrombosis: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 2009; 150: 57785.
  • 15
    Poli D, Antonucci E, Ciuti G, Abbate R, Prisco D. Combination of D-dimer, F1 + 2 and residual vein obstruction as predictors of VTE recurrence in patients with first VTE episode after OAT withdrawal. J Thromb Haemost 2008; 6: 70810.
  • 16
    Siragusa S, Malato A, Anastasio R, Cigna V, Milio G, Amato C, Bellisi M, Attanzio MT, Cormaci O, Pellegrino M, Dolce A, Casuccio A, Bajardi G, Mariani G. Residual vein thrombosis to establish duration of anticoagulation after a first episode of deep vein thrombosis: the “DACUS” study. Blood 2008; 112: 5115.
  • 17
    Cosmi B, Legnani C, Cini M, Guazzaloca G, Palareti G. D-dimer levels in combination with residual venous obstruction and the risk of recurrence after anticoagulation withdrawal for a first idiopathic deep vein thrombosis. Thromb Haemost 2005; 94: 96974.
  • 18
    Kearon C, Ginsberg JS, Anderson DR, Kovacs MJ, Wells P, Julian JA, Mackinnon B, Demers C, Douketis J, Turpie AG, van Nguyen P, Green D, Kassis J, Kahn SR, Solymoss S, Desjardins L, Geerts W, Johnston M, Weitz JI, Hirsh J, et al. Comparison of 1 month with 3 months of anticoagulation for a first episode of venous thromboembolism associated with a transient risk factor. J Thromb Haemost 2004; 2: 7439.
  • 19
    Le Gal G, Kovacs MJ, Carrier M, Do K, Kahn SR, Wells PS, Anderson DA, Chagnon I, Solymoss S, Crowther M, Righini M, Perrier A, White RH, Vickars L, Rodger M. Validation of a diagnostic approach to exclude recurrent venous thromboembolism. J Thromb Haemost 2009; 7: 7529.
  • 20
    Kim TM, Kim JS, Han SW, Hong YS, Kim I, Ha J, Kim SJ, Chung JW, Park JH, Lee D, Park S, Kim BK, Kim NK, Yoon SS. Clinical predictors of recurrent venous thromboembolism: a single institute experience in Korea. Thromb Res 2009; 123: 43643.
  • 21
    Prandoni P, Lensing AW, Cogo A, Cuppini S, Villalta S, Carta M, Cattelan AM, Polistena P, Bernardi E, Prins MH. The long-term clinical course of acute deep venous thrombosis. Ann Intern Med 1996; 125: 17.
  • 22
    Linkins LA, Stretton R, Probyn L, Kearon C. Interobserver agreement on ultrasound measurements of residual vein diameter, thrombus echogenicity and Doppler venous flow in patients with previous venous thrombosis. Thromb Res 2006; 117: 2417.