SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Lloyd-Jones D, Adams RJ, Brown TM, Carnethon M, Dai S, De Simone G, Ferguson TB, Ford E, Furie K, Gillespie C, Go A, Greenlund K, Haase N, Hailpern S, Ho PM, Howard V, Kissela B, Kittner S, Lackland D, Lisabeth L et al. Heart disease and stroke statistics – 2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation 2010; 121: e46215.
  • 2
    Green AR. Pharmacological approaches to acute ischaemic stroke: reperfusion certainly, neuroprotection possibly. Br J Pharmacol 2008; 153: S32538.
  • 3
    Sandercock PA, Counsell C, Gubitz GJ, Tseng MC. Antiplatelet therapy for acute ischaemic stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008; (3): CD000029.
  • 4
    Adams HP. Emergent use of anticoagulation for treatment of patients with ischemic stroke. Stroke 2002; 33: 85661.
  • 5
    Camerlingo M, Salvi P, Belloni G, Gamba T, Cesana BM, Mamoli A. Intravenous heparin started within the first 3 hours after onset of symptoms as a treatment for acute nonlacunar hemispheric cerebral infarctions. Stroke 2005; 36: 241520.
  • 6
    Sandercock P, Counsell C, Kamal AK. Anticoagulants for acute ischemic stroke. Stroke 2009; 40: e4834.
  • 7
    Esmon CT, Owen WG. Identification of an endothelial cell cofactor for thrombin- catalyzed activation of protein C. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1981; 78: 224952.
  • 8
    Dahlbäck B. Physiological anticoagulation. Resistance to activated protein C and venous thromboembolism. J Clin Invest 1994; 94: 9237.
  • 9
    Lane DA, Philippou H, Huntington JA. Directing thrombin. Blood 2005; 106: 260512.
  • 10
    Bajzar L, Morser J, Nesheim M. TAFI, or plasma procarboxypeptidase B, couples the coagulation and fibrinolytic cascades through the thrombin-thrombomodulin complex. J Biol Chem 1996; 271: 166038.
  • 11
    Wang W, Nagashima M, Schneider M, Morser J, Nesheim M. Elements of the primary structure of thrombomodulin required for efficient thrombin-activable fibrinolysis inhibitor activation. J Biol Chem 2000; 275: 229427.
  • 12
    Momi S, Leone M, Semeraro N, Morser J, Gresele P, Colucci M. Recombinant soluble thrombomodulin prevents thrombin-induced thromboembolism in mice independently of direct thrombin inhibition. Haematologica 2000; 85: 878.
  • 13
    Mohri M. ART-123: recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin. Cardiovasc Drug Rev 2000; 18: 31225.
  • 14
    Cui J, Eitzman DT, Westrick RJ, Christie PD, Xu ZJ, Yang AY, Purkayastha AA, Yang TL, Metz AL, Gallagher KP, Tyson JA, Rosenberg RD, Ginsburg D. Spontaneous thrombosis in mice carrying the factor V Leiden mutation. Blood 2000; 96: 42226.
  • 15
    Su EJ, Fredriksson L, Geyer M, Folestad E, Cale J, Andrae J, Gao Y, Pietras K, Mann K, Yepes M, Strickland DK, Betsholtz C, Eriksson U, Lawrence DA. Activation of PDGF-CC by tissue plasminogen activator impairs blood–brain barrier integrity during ischemic stroke. Nat Med 2008; 14: 7317.
  • 16
    Choudhri TF, Hoh BL, Prestigiacomo CJ, Huang J, Kim LJ, Schmidt AM, Kisiel W, Connolly ES Jr, Pinsky DJ. Targeted inhibition of intrinsic coagulation limits cerebral injury in stroke without increasing intracerebral hemorrhage. J Exp Med 1999; 190: 919.
  • 17
    Yepes M, Sandkvist M, Wong MK, Coleman TA, Smith E, Cohan SL, Lawrence DA. Neuroserpin reduces cerebral infarct volume and protects neurons from ischemia-induced apoptosis. Blood 2000; 96: 56976.
  • 18
    Zhao BQ, Ikeda Y, Ihara H, Urano T, Fan W, Mikawa S, Suzuki Y, Kondo K, Sato K, Nagai N, Umemura K. Essential role of endogenous tissue plasminogen activator through matrix metalloproteinase 9 induction and expression on heparin-produced cerebral hemorrhage after cerebral ischemia in mice. Blood 2004; 103: 26106.
  • 19
    Wong KS, Chen C, Ng PW, Tsoi TH, Li HL, Fong WC, Yeung J, Wong CK, Yip KK, Gao H, Wong HB. Low-molecular-weight heparin compared with aspirin for the treatment of acute ischaemic stroke in Asian patients with large artery occlusive disease: a randomised study. Lancet Neurol 2007; 6: 40713.
  • 20
    Paciaroni M, Agnelli G, Micheli S, Caso V. Efficacy and safety of anticoagulant treatment in acute cardioembolic stroke: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Stroke 2007; 38: 42330.
  • 21
    Stoll G, Kleinschnitz C, Nieswandt B. Molecular mechanisms of thrombus formation in ischemic stroke: novel insights and targets for treatment. Blood 2008; 112: 355562.
  • 22
    Adams HP Jr, Effron MB, Torner J, Davalos A, Frayne J, Teal P, Leclerc J, Oemar B, Padgett L, Barnathan ES, Hacke W. Emergency administration of abciximab for treatment of patients with acute ischemic stroke: results of an international phase III trial: Abciximab in Emergency Treatment of Stroke Trial (AbESTT-II). Stroke 2008; 39: 8799.
  • 23
    Bajzar L, Nesheim ME, Tracy PB. The profibrinolytic effect of activated protein C in clots formed from plasma is TAFI-dependent. Blood 1996; 88: 2093100.
  • 24
    Mosnier LO, Meijers JC, Bouma BN. Regulation of fibrinolysis in plasma by TAFI and protein C is dependent on the concentration of thrombomodulin. Thromb Haemost 2001; 85: 511.
  • 25
    Bajzar L, Kalafatis M, Simioni P, Tracy PB. An antifibrinolytic mechanism describing the prothrombotic effect associated with factor VLeiden. J Biol Chem 1996; 271: 2294952.
  • 26
    Parker AC, Mundada LV, Schmaier AH, Fay WP. Factor VLeiden inhibits fibrinolysis in vivo. Circulation 2004; 110: 35948.
  • 27
    Xi G, Reiser G, Keep RF. The role of thrombin and thrombin receptors in ischemic, hemorrhagic and traumatic brain injury: deleterious or protective? J Neurochem 2003; 84: 39.
  • 28
    Hua Y, Keep RF, Hoff JT, Xi G. Brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage: the role of thrombin and iron. Stroke 2007; 38: 75962.
  • 29
    Xue M, Hollenberg MD, Yong VW. Combination of thrombin and matrix metalloproteinase-9 exacerbates neurotoxicity in cell culture and intracerebral hemorrhage in mice. J Neurosci 2006; 26: 1028191.
  • 30
    Guo H, Singh I, Wang Y, Deane R, Barrett T, Fernandez JA, Chow N, Griffin JH, Zlokovic BV. Neuroprotective activities of activated protein C mutant with reduced anticoagulant activity. Eur J Neurosci 2009; 29: 111930.
  • 31
    Wang Y, Thiyagarajan M, Chow N, Singh I, Guo H, Davis TP, Zlokovic BV. Differential neuroprotection and risk for bleeding from activated protein C with varying degrees of anticoagulant activity. Stroke 2009; 40: 18649.
  • 32
    Hemker HC, Al Dieri R, De Smedt E, Beguin S. Thrombin generation, a function test of the haemostatic-thrombotic system. Thromb Haemost 2006; 96: 55361.
  • 33
    Fumagalli R, Mignini MA. The safety profile of drotrecogin alfa (activated). Crit Care 2007; 11 (Suppl. 5): S6.
  • 34
    van Iersel T, Stroissnig H, Giesen P, Wemer J, Wilhelm-Ogunbiyi K. Phase I study of Solulin, a novel recombinant soluble human thrombomodulin analogue. Thromb Haemost 2010; 105: 30212.