Genetic variation within the anticoagulant, procoagulant, fibrinolytic and innate immunity pathways as risk factors for venous thromboembolism


John A. Heit, Stabile 6-Hematology Research, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street, SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.
Tel.: +1 507 284 4634; fax: +1 507 266 9302.


Summary. Background: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is highly heritable (estimated heritability [h2] = 0.62) and likely to be a result of multigenic action. Objective: To systematically test variation within genes encoding for important components of the anticoagulant, procoagulant, fibrinolytic and innate immunity pathways for an independent association with VTE. Methods: Non-Hispanic adults of European ancestry with objectively-diagnosed VTE, and age- and sex- matched controls, were genotyped for 13 031 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 764 genes. Analyses (n = 12 296 SNPs) were performed with plink using an additive genetic model and adjusted for age, sex, state of residence, and myocardial infarction or stroke. Results: Among 2927 individuals, one or more SNPs within ABO, F2, F5, F11, KLKB1, SELP and SCUBE1 were significantly associated with VTE, including factor (F) V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A, ABO non-O blood type, and a novel association with ABO rs2519093 (OR = 1.68, P-value = 8.08 × 10−16) that was independent of blood type. In stratified analyses, SNPs in the following genes were significantly associated with VTE: F5 and ABO among both genders and LY86 among women; F2, ABO and KLKB1 among FV Leiden non-carriers; F5, F11, KLKB1 and GFRA1 in those with ABO non-O blood type; and ABO, F5, F11, KLKB1, SCUBE1 and SELP among prothrombin G20210A non-carriers. The ABO rs2519093 population-attributable risk (PAR) exceeded that of FV Leiden and prothrombin G20210A, and the joint PAR of FV Leiden, prothrombin G20210A, ABO non-O and ABO rs2519093 was 0.40. Conclusions: Anticoagulant, procoagulant, fibrinolytic and innate immunity pathway genetic variation accounts for a large proportion of VTE among non-Hispanic adults of European ancestry.