• 1
    Brook RD, Franklin B, Cascio W, Hong Y, Howard G, Lipsett M, Luepker R, Mittleman M, Samet J, Smith SC Jr, Tager I. Air pollution and cardiovascular disease: a statement for healthcare professionals from the Expert Panel on Population and Prevention Science of the American Heart Association. Circulation 2004; 109: 265571.
  • 2
    Harrison RM, Yin J. Particulate matter in the atmosphere: which particle properties are important for its effects on health? Sci Total Environ 2000; 249: 85101.
  • 3
    Dales RE, Cakmak S, Vidal CB. Air pollution and hospitalization for venous thromboembolic disease in Chile. J Thromb Haemost 2010; 8: 66974.
  • 4
    Hoek G, Brunekreef B, Fischer P, van Wijnen J. The association between air pollution and heart failure, arrhythmia, embolism, thrombosis, and other cardiovascular causes of death in a time series study. Epidemiology 2001; 12: 3557.
  • 5
    Baccarelli A, Martinelli I, Zanobetti A, Grillo P, Hou LF, Bertazzi PA, Mannucci PM, Schwartz J. Exposure to particulate air pollution and risk of deep vein thrombosis. Arch Intern Med 2008; 168: 9207.
  • 6
    Mills NL, Donaldson K, Hadoke PW, Boon NA, MacNee W, Cassee FR, Sandstrom T, Blomberg A, Newby DE. Adverse cardiovascular effects of air pollution. Nat Clin Pract Cardiovasc Med 2009; 6: 3644.
  • 7
    Lippi G, Favaloro EJ, Franchini M, Guidi GC. Air pollution and coagulation testing: a new source of biological variability? Thromb Res 2008; 123: 504.
  • 8
    Frederix K, Kooter IM, van Oerle R, Fens D, Hamulyak K, Gerlofs-Nijland ME, Ten Cate H, Spronk HM. A new method to determine tissue specific tissue factor thrombomodulin activities: endotoxin and particulate air pollution induced disbalance. Thromb J 2008; 6: 14.
  • 9
    Mutlu GM, Green D, Bellmeyer A, Baker CM, Burgess Z, Rajamannan N, Christman JW, Foiles N, Kamp DW, Ghio AJ, Chandel NS, Dean DA, Sznajder JI, Budinger GR. Ambient particulate matter accelerates coagulation via an IL-6-dependent pathway. J Clin Invest 2007; 117: 295261.
  • 10
    Lucking AJ, Lundback M, Mills NL, Faratian D, Barath SL, Pourazar J, Cassee FR, Donaldson K, Boon NA, Badimon JJ, Sandstrom T, Blomberg A, Newby DE. Diesel exhaust inhalation increases thrombus formation in man. Eur Heart J 2008; 29: 304351.
  • 11
    Mills NL, Tornqvist H, Robinson SD, Gonzalez M, Darnley K, MacNee W, Boon NA, Donaldson K, Blomberg A, Sandstrom T, Newby DE. Diesel exhaust inhalation causes vascular dysfunction and impaired endogenous fibrinolysis. Circulation 2005; 112: 39306.
  • 12
    Tornqvist H, Mills NL, Gonzalez M, Miller MR, Robinson SD, Megson IL, Macnee W, Donaldson K, Soderberg S, Newby DE, Sandstrom T, Blomberg A. Persistent endothelial dysfunction in humans after diesel exhaust inhalation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2007; 176: 395400.
  • 13
    Chen J, Tan M, Nemmar A, Song W, Dong M, Zhang G, Li Y. Quantification of extrapulmonary translocation of intratracheal-instilled particles in vivo in rats: effect of lipopolysaccharide. Toxicology 2006; 222: 195201.
  • 14
    Furuyama A, Kanno S, Kobayashi T, Hirano S. Extrapulmonary translocation of intratracheally instilled fine and ultrafine particles via direct and alveolar macrophage-associated routes. Arch Toxicol 2009; 83: 42937.
  • 15
    Kreyling WG, Semmler M, Erbe F, Mayer P, Takenaka S, Schulz H, Oberdorster G, Ziesenis A. Translocation of ultrafine insoluble iridium particles from lung epithelium to extrapulmonary organs is size dependent but very low. J Toxicol Environ Health A 2002; 65: 151330.
  • 16
    Nemmar A, Vanbilloen H, Hoylaerts MF, Hoet PH, Verbruggen A, Nemery B. Passage of intratracheally instilled ultrafine particles from the lung into the systemic circulation in hamster. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001; 164: 16658.
  • 17
    Oberdorster G, Sharp Z, Atudorei V, Elder A, Gelein R, Lunts A, Kreyling W, Cox C. Extrapulmonary translocation of ultrafine carbon particles following whole-body inhalation exposure of rats. J Toxicol Environ Health A 2002; 65: 153143.
  • 18
    Takenaka S, Karg E, Roth C, Schulz H, Ziesenis A, Heinzmann U, Schramel P, Heyder J. Pulmonary and systemic distribution of inhaled ultrafine silver particles in rats. Environ Health Perspect 2001; 109(Suppl. 4): 54751.
  • 19
    Kilinç E, Rudež G, Spronk HMH, Nemmar A, de Maat MPM, ten Cate H, Hoylaerts MF. Particles, coagulation, and thrombosis. In: CasseeFR, MillsNL, NewbyDE, eds. Cardiovascular Effects of Inhaled Ultrafine and Nano-Sized Particles. Chicester: John Wiley and Sons Ltd, 2011; 40521.
  • 20
    Mills NL, Amin N, Robinson SD, Anand A, Davies J, Patel D, de la Fuente JM, Cassee FR, Boon NA, Macnee W, Millar AM, Donaldson K, Newby DE. Do inhaled carbon nanoparticles translocate directly into the circulation in humans? Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2006; 173: 42631.
  • 21
    Nemmar A, Hoet PH, Vanquickenborne B, Dinsdale D, Thomeer M, Hoylaerts MF, Vanbilloen H, Mortelmans L, Nemery B. Passage of inhaled particles into the blood circulation in humans. Circulation 2002; 105: 4114.
  • 22
    Zhuo R, Siedlecki CA, Vogler EA. Autoactivation of blood factor XII at hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces. Biomaterials 2006; 27: 432532.
  • 23
    Maas C, Govers-Riemslag JW, Bouma B, Schiks B, Hazenberg BP, Lokhorst HM, Hammarstrom P, ten Cate H, de Groot PG, Bouma BN, Gebbink MF. Misfolded proteins activate factor XII in humans, leading to kallikrein formation without initiating coagulation. J Clin Invest 2008; 118: 320818.
  • 24
    Muller F, Mutch NJ, Schenk WA, Smith SA, Esterl L, Spronk HM, Schmidbauer S, Gahl WA, Morrissey JH, Renne T. Platelet polyphosphates are proinflammatory and procoagulant mediators in vivo. Cell 2009; 139: 114356.
  • 25
    van der Meijden PE, Munnix IC, Auger JM, Govers-Riemslag JW, Cosemans JM, Kuijpers MJ, Spronk HM, Watson SP, Renne T, Heemskerk JW. Dual role of collagen in factor XII-dependent thrombus formation. Blood 2009; 114: 88190.
  • 26
    Gailani D, Renne T. The intrinsic pathway of coagulation: a target for treating thromboembolic disease? J Thromb Haemost 2007; 5: 110612.
  • 27
    Renne T, Pozgajova M, Gruner S, Schuh K, Pauer HU, Burfeind P, Gailani D, Nieswandt B. Defective thrombus formation in mice lacking coagulation factor XII. J Exp Med 2005; 202: 27181.
  • 28
    Kleinschnitz C, Stoll G, Bendszus M, Schuh K, Pauer HU, Burfeind P, Renne C, Gailani D, Nieswandt B, Renne T. Targeting coagulation factor XII provides protection from pathological thrombosis in cerebral ischemia without interfering with hemostasis. J Exp Med 2006; 203: 5138.
  • 29
    Doggen CJ, Rosendaal FR, Meijers JC. Levels of intrinsic coagulation factors and the risk of myocardial infarction among men: opposite and synergistic effects of factors XI and XII. Blood 2006; 108: 404551.
  • 30
    Endler G, Marsik C, Jilma B, Schickbauer T, Quehenberger P, Mannhalter C. Evidence of a U-shaped association between factor XII activity and overall survival. J Thromb Haemost 2007; 5: 11438.
  • 31
    Govers-Riemslag JW, Smid M, Cooper JA, Bauer KA, Rosenberg RD, Hack CE, Hamulyak K, Spronk HM, Miller GJ, ten Cate H. The plasma kallikrein-kinin system and risk of cardiovascular disease in men. J Thromb Haemost 2007; 5: 1896903.
  • 32
    Gerlofs-Nijland ME, Dormans JA, Bloemen HJ, Leseman DL, John A, Boere F, Kelly FJ, Mudway IS, Jimenez AA, Donaldson K, Guastadisegni C, Janssen NA, Brunekreef B, Sandstrom T, van Bree L, Cassee FR. Toxicity of coarse and fine particulate matter from sites with contrasting traffic profiles. Inhal Toxicol 2007; 19: 105569.
  • 33
    Kim S, Jaques PA, Chang MC, Froines JR, Sioutas C. Versatile aerosol concentration enrichment system (VACES) for simultaneous in vivo and in vitro evaluation of toxic effects of ultrafine, fine and coarse ambient particles – Part I: development and laboratory characterization. J Aerosol Sci 2001; 32: 128197.
  • 34
    Hemker HC, Giesen P, AlDieri R, Regnault V, de Smed E, Wagenvoord R, Lecompte T, Beguin S. The calibrated automated thrombogram (CAT): a universal routine test for hyper- and hypocoagulability. Pathophysiol Haemost Thromb 2002; 32: 24953.
  • 35
    Dielis AW, Castoldi E, Spronk HM, van Oerle R, Hamulyak K, ten Cate H, Rosing J. Coagulation factors and the protein C system as determinants of thrombin generation in a normal population. J Thromb Haemost 2008; 6: 12531.
  • 36
    Loubele ST, Spek CA, Leenders P, van Oerle R, Aberson HL, van der Voort D, Hamulyak K, Petersen LC, Spronk HM, ten Cate H. Active site inhibited factor VIIa attenuates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice. J Thromb Haemost 2009; 7: 2908.
  • 37
    Baccarelli A, Martinelli I, Pegoraro V, Melly S, Grillo P, Zanobetti A, Hou L, Bertazzi PA, Mannucci PM, Schwartz J. Living near major traffic roads and risk of deep vein thrombosis. Circulation 2009; 119: 311824.
  • 38
    Johnson D, Parker JD. Air pollution exposure and self-reported cardiovascular disease. Environ Res 2009; 109: 5829.
  • 39
    Khandoga A, Stoeger T, Khandoga AG, Bihari P, Karg E, Ettehadieh D, Lakatos S, Fent J, Schulz H, Krombach F. Platelet adhesion and fibrinogen deposition in murine microvessels upon inhalation of nanosized carbon particles. J Thromb Haemost 2010; 8: 163240.
  • 40
    Kooter IM, Frederix K, Spronk HM, Boere AJ, Leseman DL, van Steeg H, ten Cate H, Cassee FR. Lung inflammation and thrombogenic responses in a time course study of Csb mice exposed to ozone. J Appl Toxicol 2008; 28: 77987.
  • 41
    Nemmar A, Hoet PH, Dinsdale D, Vermylen J, Hoylaerts MF, Nemery B. Diesel exhaust particles in lung acutely enhance experimental peripheral thrombosis. Circulation 2003; 107: 12028.
  • 42
    Nemmar A, Hoylaerts MF, Hoet PH, Dinsdale D, Smith T, Xu H, Vermylen J, Nemery B. Ultrafine particles affect experimental thrombosis in an in vivo hamster model. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2002; 166: 9981004.
  • 43
    Rudez G, Janssen NA, Kilinc E, Leebeek FW, Gerlofs-Nijland ME, Spronk HM, ten Cate H, Cassee FR, de Maat MP. Effects of ambient air pollution on hemostasis and inflammation. Environ Health Perspect 2009; 117: 9951001.
  • 44
    Ripanucci G, Grana M, Vicentini L, Magrini A, Bergamaschi A. Dust in the underground railway tunnels of an Italian town. J Occup Environ Hyg 2006; 3: 1625.
  • 45
    Seaton A, Cherrie J, Dennekamp M, Donaldson K, Hurley JF, Tran CL. The London underground: dust and hazards to health. Occup Environ Med 2005; 62: 35562.
  • 46
    Sangani RG, Soukup JM, Ghio AJ. Metals in air pollution particles decrease whole-blood coagulation time. Inhal Toxicol 2010; 22: 6216.
  • 47
    Brown DM, Hutchison L, Donaldson K, Stone V. The effects of PM10 particles and oxidative stress on macrophages and lung epithelial cells: modulating effects of calcium-signaling antagonists. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2007; 292: L144451.
  • 48
    Gilmour PS, Morrison ER, Vickers MA, Ford I, Ludlam CA, Greaves M, Donaldson K, MacNee W. The procoagulant potential of environmental particles (PM10). Occup Environ Med 2005; 62: 16471.
  • 49
    Schmid O, Moller W, Semmler-Behnke M, Ferron GA, Karg E, Lipka J, Schulz H, Kreyling WG, Stoeger T. Dosimetry and toxicology of inhaled ultrafine particles. Biomarkers 2009; 14(Suppl. 1): 6773.
  • 50
    Tabata Y, Ikada Y. Effect of the size and surface charge of polymer microspheres on their phagocytosis by macrophage. Biomaterials 1988; 9: 35662.
  • 51
    Moller W, Felten K, Sommerer K, Scheuch G, Meyer G, Meyer P, Haussinger K, Kreyling WG. Deposition, retention, and translocation of ultrafine particles from the central airways and lung periphery. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2008; 177: 42632.
  • 52
    Brown JS, Zeman KL, Bennett WD. Regional deposition of coarse particles and ventilation distribution in healthy subjects and patients with cystic fibrosis. J Aerosol Med 2001; 14: 44354.
  • 53
    Driscoll KE, Costa DL, Hatch G, Henderson R, Oberdorster G, Salem H, Schlesinger RB. Intratracheal instillation as an exposure technique for the evaluation of respiratory tract toxicity: uses and limitations. Toxicol Sci 2000; 55: 2435.
  • 54
    Cozzi E, Wingard CJ, Cascio WE, Devlin RB, Miles JJ, Bofferding AR, Lust RM, van Scott MR, Henriksen RA. Effect of ambient particulate matter exposure on hemostasis. Transl Res 2007; 149: 32432.
  • 55
    Emmerechts J, Alfaro-Moreno E, Vanaudenaerde BM, Nemery B, Hoylaerts MF. Short-term exposure to particulate matter induces arterial but not venous thrombosis in healthy mice. J Thromb Haemost 2010; 8: 265161.
  • 56
    Nemmar A, Hoet PH, Vandervoort P, Dinsdale D, Nemery B, Hoylaerts MF. Enhanced peripheral thrombogenicity after lung inflammation is mediated by platelet-leukocyte activation: role of P-selectin. J Thromb Haemost 2007; 5: 121726.
  • 57
    Stoeger T, Reinhard C, Takenaka S, Schroeppel A, Karg E, Ritter B, Heyder J, Schulz H. Instillation of six different ultrafine carbon particles indicates a surface area threshold dose for acute lung inflammation in mice. Environ Health Perspect 2006; 114: 32833.
  • 58
    Hirn S, Semmler-Behnke M, Schleh C, Wenk A, Lipka J, Schaffler M, Takenaka S, Moller W, Schmid G, Simon U, Kreyling WG. Particle size-dependent and surface charge-dependent biodistribution of gold nanoparticles after intravenous administration. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2011; 77: 40716.
  • 59
    Borissoff JI, Spronk HM, Heeneman S, ten Cate H. Is thrombin a key player in the ‘coagulation-atherogenesis’ maze? Cardiovasc Res 2009; 82: 392403.