Summary. Over the past 100 years, remarkable advances have been made in our understanding of the mechanisms of blood coagulation. Starting with the early clinical observations of rare patients with hereditary clotting disorders, our knowledge has increased in keeping pace with the introduction of new technologies: from simple laboratory tests to protein chemistry, to DNA technology, and to gene targeting technology. Advances in basic research have been successfully translated into improved methods for the diagnosis of bleeding disorders as well as thrombosis, and the development of recombinant clotting factors for replacement therapy in patients with haemophilia. New promising anticoagulants have also been developed for the treatment of thrombotic disorders. Based on the unique nature of blood coagulation research the close interactions and collaborations between basic scientists and clinicians have played a major role in these developments. It is anticipated that blood coagulation research will continue to play a leading role in promoting better care of the patients with bleeding disorders or thromboembolism.