• 1
    Kamphuisen PW, Eikenboom JC, Bertina RM. Elevated factor VIII levels and the risk of thrombosis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2001; 21: 7318.
  • 2
    Wilhelmsen L, Svärdsudd K, Korsan-Bengtsen K, Larsson B, Welin L, Tibblin G. Fibrinogen as a risk factor for stroke and myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 1984; 311: 5015.
  • 3
    Meade TW, Ruddock V, Stirling Y, Chakrabarti R, Miller GJ. Fibrinolytic activity, clotting factors, and long-term incidence of ischaemic heart disease in the Northwick Park Heart Study. Lancet 1993; 342: 10769.
  • 4
    Smith FB, Lee AJ, Fowkes FG, Price JF, Rumley A, Lowe GD. Hemostatic factors as predictors of ischemic heart disease and stroke in the Edinburgh Artery Study. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1997; 17: 33215.
  • 5
    De Stavola BL, Meade TW. Long-term effects of hemostatic variables on fatal coronary heart disease: 30-year results from the first prospective Northwick Park Heart Study (NPHS-I). J Thromb Haemost 2007; 5: 46171.
  • 6
    Folsom AR, Aleksic N, Park E, Salomaa V, Juneja H, Wu KK. Prospective study of fibrinolytic factors and incident coronary heart disease: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2001; 21: 61117.
  • 7
    Rosendaal FR, Briët E, Stibbe J, van Herpen G, Leuven JA, Hofman A, Vandenbroucke JP. Haemophilia protects against ischaemic heart disease: a study of risk factors. Br J Haematol 1990; 75: 52530.
  • 8
    Plug I, van der Bom JG, Peters M, Mauser-Bunschoten EP, de Goede-Bolder A, Heijnen L, Smit C, Willemse J, Rosendaal FR. Mortality and causes of death in patients with hemophilia, 1992–2001: a prospective cohort study. J Thromb Haemost 2006; 4: 51016.
  • 9
    Darby SC, Kan SW, Spooner RJ, Giangrande PL, Hill FG, Hay CR, Lee CA, Ludlam CA, Wiliams M. Mortality rates, life expectancy, and causes of death in people with hemophilia A or B in the United Kingdom who were not infected with HIV. Blood 2007; 110: 81525.
  • 10
    Biere-Rafi S, Zwiers M, Peters M, van der Meer J, Rosendaal FR, Büller HR, Kamphuisen PW. The effect of haemophilia and von Willebrand disease on arterial thrombosis: a systematic review. Neth J Med 2010; 68: 20714.
  • 11
    Bernhard H, Wipfler P, Leschnik B, Novak M, Kraus J, Pilz G, Ladurner G, Muntean W. Relationship between thrombin generation and carotid intima-media thickness. Hamostaselogie 2010; 30(Suppl 1): S16871.
  • 12
    Borissoff JI, Heeneman S, Kilinç E, Kassák P, van Oerle R, Winckers K, Govers-Riemslag JW, Hamulyák K, Hackeng TM, Daemen MJ, ten Cate H, Spronk HM. Early atherosclerosis exhibits an enhanced procoagulant state. Circulation 2010; 122: 82130.
  • 13
    Khallou-Laschet J, Caligiuri G, Tupin R, Gaston AT, Poirier B, Groyer E, Urbain D, Maisnier-Patin S, Sarkar R, Kaveri SV, Lacroix-Desmazes S, Nicoletti A. Role of the intrinsic coagulation pathway in atherogenesis assessed in hemophilic apolipoprotein E knockout mice. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2005; 25: e1236.
  • 14
    Bilora F, Boccioletti V, Zanon E, Petrobelli F, Girolami A. Hemophilia A, von Willebrand disease, and atherosclerosis of abdominal aorta and leg arteries: factor VIII and von Willebrand factor defects appear to protect abdominal aorta and leg arteries from atherosclerosis. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost 2001; 7: 31113.
  • 15
    Bilora F, Rossi CD, Girolami B, Casonato A, Zanon E, Bertomoro A, Girolami A. Do hemophilia A and von Willebrand disease protect against carotid atherosclerosis? A comparative study between coagulopathics and normal subjects by means of carotid echo-color Doppler scan. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost 1999; 5: 2325.
  • 16
    Bilora F, Zanon E, Petrobelli F, Cavraro M, Prandoni P, Pagnan A, Girolami A. Does hemophilia protect against atherosclerosis? A case-control study. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost 2006; 12: 1938.
  • 17
    Srámek A, Reiber JH, Gerrits WB, Rosendaal FR. Decreased coagulability has no clinically relevant effect on atherogenesis: observations in individuals with a hereditary bleeding tendency. Circulation 2001; 104: 7627.
  • 18
    Sartori MT, Bilora F, Zanon E, Varvarikis C, Saggiorato G, Campagnolo E, Pagnan A, Cella G. Endothelial dysfunction in haemophilia patients. Haemophilia 2008; 14: 105562.
  • 19
    Srámek A, Bucciarelli P, Federici AB, Mannucci PM, De Rosa V, Castaman G, Morfini M, Mazzucconi MG, Rocino A, Schiavoni M, Scaraggi FA, Reiber JH, Rosendaal FR. Patients with type 3 severe von Willebrand disease are not protected against atherosclerosis: results from a multicenter study in 47 patients. Circulation 2004; 109: 7404.
  • 20
    Foley CJ, Nichols L, Jeong K, Moore CG, Ragni MV. Coronary atherosclerosis and cardiovascular mortality in hemophilia. J Thromb Haemost 2010; 8: 20811.
  • 21
    Kotsis VT, Stabouli SV, Papamichael CM, Zakopoulos NA. Impact of obesity in intima media thickness of carotid arteries. Obesity 2006; 14: 170515.
  • 22
    Meyer AA, Kundt G, Steiner M, Schuff-Werner P, Klenast W. Impaired flow-mediated vasodilatation, carotid intima-media thickening and elevated endothelial plasma markers in obese children: the impact of cardiovascular risk factors. Pediatrics 2006; 117: 15607.
  • 23
    Hofstede FG, Fijnvandraat K, Plug I, Kamphuisen PW, Rosendaal FR, Peters M. Obesity: a new disaster for haemophilic patients? A nationwide survey. Haemophilia 2008; 14: 10358.
  • 24
    de Groot E, Hovingh GK, Duriez P, Smit AJ, Fruchart JC, Kastelein JJ. Measurement of arterial wall thickness as a surrogate marker for atherosclerosis. Circulation 2004; 109 (Suppl III): III-33III-38.
  • 25
    Smilde TJ, Trip MD, Wollersheim H, van Wissen S, Kastelein JJP, Stalenhoef AF. Rationale, design and baseline characteristics of a clinical trial comparing the effects of robust vs conventional cholesterol lowering and intima media thickness in patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia. The atorvastatin versus simvastatin on atherosclerosis progression (ASAP) study. Clin Drug Invest 2001; 20: 6779.
  • 26
    Wright CI, Scholten HJ, Schilder JC, Elsen BM, Hanselaar W, Kroner CI, Draijer R, Kastelein JJ, Stok W, Karemaker J, de Groot E. Arterial stiffness, endothelial function and microcirculatory reactivity in healthy young males. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging 2008; 28: 299306.
  • 27
    Kastelein JJ, Duivenvoorden R, Deanfield J, de Groot E, Jukema JW, Kaski JC, Münzel T, Taddei S, Lehnert V, Burgess T, Kallend D, Lüscher TF. Rationale and design of dal-VESSEL: a study to assess the safety and efficacy of dalcetrapib on endothelial function using brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilatation. Curr Med Res Opin 2011; 27: 14150.
  • 28
    Borissoff JI, Spronk HM, ten Cate H. The hemostatic system as a modulator of atherosclerosis. N Engl J Med 2011; 364: 174660.
  • 29
    Coughlin SR. Thrombin signalling and protease-activated receptors. Nature 2000; 407: 25864.
  • 30
    Major CD, Santulli RJ, Derian CK, Andrade-Gordon P. Extracellular mediators in atherosclerosis and thrombosis: lessons from thrombin receptor knockout mice. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2003; 23: 9319.
  • 31
    Camerer E. Unchecked thrombin is bad news for troubled arteries. J Clin Invest 2007; 117: 14869.
  • 32
    Coughlin SR, Camerer E. PARticipation in inflammation. J Clin Invest 2003; 111: 257.
  • 33
    Revkin JH, Shear CL, Pouleur HG, Ryder SW, Orloff DG. Biomarkers in the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis: need, validation, and future. Pharmacol Rev 2007; 59: 4053.
  • 34
    Sorensen KE, Celermajer DS, Spiegelhalter DJ, Georgakopoulos D, Robinson J, Thomas O, Deanfield JE. Non-invasive measurement of human endothelium dependent arterial responses: accuracy and reproducibility. Br Heart J 1995; 74: 24753.
  • 35
    Schutgens RE, Tuinenburg A, Roosendaal G, Guyomi SH, Mauser-Bunschoten EP. Treatment of ischaemic heart disease in haemophilia patients: an institutional guideline. Haemophilia 2009; 15: 9528.