• 1
    Danesh J, Wheeler JG, Hirschfield GM, Eda S, Eiriksdottir G, Rumley A, Lowe GD, Pepys MB, Gudnason V. C-reactive protein and other circulating markers of inflammation in the prediction of coronary heart disease. N Engl J Med 2004; 350: 138797.
  • 2
    Fibrinogen Studies Collaboration. Plasma fibrinogen level and the risk of major cardiovascular diseases and nonvascular mortality: an individual participant meta-analysis. JAMA 2005; 294: 1799809.
  • 3
    Danesh J, Whincup P, Walker M, Lennon L, Thomson A, Appleby P, Rumley A, Lowe GD. Fibrin D-dimer and coronary heart disease: prospective study and meta-analysis. Circulation 2001; 103: 23237.
  • 4
    Whincup PH, Danesh J, Walker M, Lennon L, Thomson A, Appleby P, Rumley A, Lowe GD. von Willebrand factor and coronary heart disease: prospective study and meta-analysis. Eur Heart J 2002; 23: 176470.
  • 5
    Lowe GD, Danesh J, Lewington S, Walker M, Lennon L, Thomson A, Rumley A, Whincup PH. Tissue plasminogen activator antigen and coronary heart disease. Prospective study and meta-analysis. Eur Heart J 2004; 25: 2529.
  • 6
    Pearson TA, Mensah GA, Alexander RW, Anderson JL, Cannon RO, III, Criqui M, Fadl YY, Fortmann PP, Hong Y, Myers GL, Rifai N, Smith SC, Jr, Taubert K, Tracy RP, Vinicor F, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; American Heart Association. Markers of inflammation and cardiovascular disease: application to clinical and public health practice: a statement for healthcare professionals from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Heart Association. Circulation 2003; 107: 499511.
  • 7
    Kaplan RC, McGinn AP, Baird AE, Hendrix SL, Kooperberg C, Lynch J, Rosenbaum DM, Johnson KC, Strickler HD, Wassertheil-Smoller S. Inflammation and hemostasis biomarkers for predicting stroke in postmenopausal women: the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2008; 17: 34455.
  • 8
    Woodward M, Welsh P, Rumley A, Tunstall-Pedoe H, Lowe GD. Do inflammatory biomarkers add to the discrimination of cardiovascular disease after allowing for social deprivation? Results from a 10 year cohort study in Glasgow, Scotland Eur Heart J 2010; 31: 266978.
  • 9
    Shah T, Casas JP, Cooper JA, Tzoulaki I, Sofat R, McCormack V, Smeeth L, Deanfield JE, Lowe GD, Rumley A, Fowkes FG, Humphries SE, Hingorani AD. Critical appraisal of CRP measurement for the prediction of coronary heart disease events: new data and systematic review of 31 prospective cohorts. Int J Epidemiol 2009; 38: 21731.
  • 10
    Ridker PM, Buring JE, Cook NR, Rifai N. C-reactive protein, the metabolic syndrome, and risk of incident cardiovascular events: an 8-year follow-up of 14 719 initially healthy American women. Circulation 2003; 107: 3917.
  • 11
    Eckel RH, Grundy SM, Zimmet PZ. The metabolic syndrome. Lancet 2005; 365: 141528.
  • 12
    Marsland AL, McCaffery JM, Muldoon MF, Manuck SB. Systemic inflammation and the metabolic syndrome among middle-aged community volunteers. Metabolism 2010; 59: 18018.
  • 13
    Han TS, Sattar N, Williams K, Gonzalez-Villalpando C, Lean ME, Haffner SM. Prospective study of C-reactive protein in relation to the development of diabetes and metabolic syndrome in the Mexico City Diabetes Study. Diabetes Care 2002; 25: 201621.
  • 14
    Rutter MK, Meigs JB, Sullivan LM, D’Agostino RB Sr, Wilson PW. C-reactive protein, the metabolic syndrome, and prediction of cardiovascular events in the Framingham Offspring Study. Circulation 2004; 110: 3805.
  • 15
    Ma J, Xu A, Jia C, Liu L, Fu Z, Dong J, Guo X, Su J, Bi Z. Associations of fibrinogen with metabolic syndrome in rural Chinese population. J Atheroscler Thromb 2010; 17: 48692.
  • 16
    Lee CC, Adler AI, Sandhu MS, Sharp SJ, Forouhi NG, Erqou S, Luben R, Bingham S, Khaw KT, Wareham NJ. Association of C-reactive protein with type 2 diabetes: prospective analysis and meta-analysis. Diabetologia 2009; 52: 10407.
  • 17
    Rudnicka AR, Rumley A, Lowe GD, Strachan DP. Diurnal, seasonal, and blood-processing patterns in levels of circulating fibrinogen, fibrin D-dimer, C-reactive protein, tissue plasminogen activator, and von Willebrand factor in a 45-year-old population. Circulation 2007; 115: 9961003.
  • 18
    Tabassum F, Kumari M, Rumley A, Lowe G, Power C, Strachan DP. Effects of socioeconomic position on inflammatory and hemostatic markers: a life-course analysis in the 1958 British birth cohort. Am J Epidemiol 2008; 167: 133241.
  • 19
    Strachan DP, Rudnicka AR, Power C, Shepherd P, Fuller E, Davis A, Gibb I, Kumari M, Rumley A, Macfarlane GJ, Rahi J, Rodgers B, Stansfeld S. Lifecourse influences on health among British adults: effects of region of residence in childhood and adulthood. Int J Epidemiol 2007; 36: 52231.
  • 20
    von Clauss A. Rapid physiological coagulation method in determination of fibrinogen. Acta Haematol 1957; 17: 23746.
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    Alberti KG, Zimmet P, Shaw J. The metabolic syndrome--a new worldwide definition. Lancet 2005; 366: 105962.
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    Atherton K, Fuller E, Shepherd P, Strachan DP, Power C. Loss and representativeness in a biomedical survey at age 45 years: 1958 British birth cohort. J Epidemiol Community Health 2008; 62: 21623.
  • 23
    Miller M, Zhan M, Havas S. High attributable risk of elevated C-reactive protein level to conventional coronary heart disease risk factors: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Arch Intern Med 2005; 165: 20638.
  • 24
    Fibrinogen Studies Collaboration, Kaptoge S, White IR, Thompson SG, Wood AM, Lewington S, Lowe GD, Danesh J. Associations of plasma fibrinogen levels with established cardiovascular disease risk factors, inflammatory markers, and other characteristics: individual participant meta-analysis of 154,211 adults in 31 prospective studies: the fibrinogen studies collaboration. Am J Epidemiol 2007; 166: 86779.
  • 25
    Hung J, Knuiman MW, Divitini ML, Davis T, Beilby JP. Prevalence and risk factor correlates of elevated C-reactive protein in an adult Australian population. Am J Cardiol 2008; 101: 1938.
  • 26
    Wannamethee SG, Lowe GD, Shaper AG, Rumley A, Lennon L, Whincup PH. The metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance: relationship to haemostatic and inflammatory markers in older non-diabetic men. Atherosclerosis 2005; 181: 1018.
  • 27
    Lakoski SG, Cushman M, Criqui M, Rundek T, Blumenthal RS, D’Agostino RB Jr, Herrington DM. Gender and C-reactive protein: data from the Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort. Am Heart J 2006; 152: 5938.
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    Thorand B, Baumert J, Doring A, Herder C, Kolb H, Rathmann W, Giani G, Koenig W; KORA Group. Sex differences in the relation of body composition to markers of inflammation. Atherosclerosis 2006; 184: 21624.
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    Bo S, Gentile L, Ciccone G, Baldi C, Benini L, Dusio F, Lucia C, Forastiere G, Nuti C, Cassader M, Franco Pagano G. The metabolic syndrome and high C-reactive protein: prevalence and differences by sex in a southern-European population-based cohort. Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2005; 21: 51524.
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    Bowles LK, Cooper JA, Howarth DJ, Miller GJ, MacCallum PK. Associations of haemostatic variables with body mass index: a community-based study. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 2003; 14: 56973.
  • 31
    Rogowski O, Shapira I, Berliner S. Exploring the usefulness of inflammation-sensitive biomarkers to reveal potential sex differences in relation to low-grade inflammation in individuals with the metabolic syndrome. Metabolism 2008; 57: 12216.
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    Saltevo J, Vanhala M, Kautiainen H, Kumpusalo E, Laakso M. Gender differences in C-reactive protein, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and adiponectin levels in the metabolic syndrome: a population-based study. Diabet Med 2008; 25: 74750.
  • 33
    Hak AE, Pols HA, Stehouwer CD, Meijer J, Kiliaan AJ, Hofman A, Breteler MM, Witteman JC. Markers of inflammation and cellular adhesion molecules in relation to insulin resistance in nondiabetic elderly: the Rotterdam study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001; 86: 4398405.
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    Thorand B, Baumert J, Kolb H, Meisinger C, Chambless L, Koenig W, Herder C. Sex differences in the prediction of type 2 diabetes by inflammatory markers: results from the MONICA/KORA Augsburg case-cohort study, 1984–2002. Diabetes Care 2007; 30: 85460.
  • 35
    Sattar N, Williams K, Han TS, Gonzalez-Villalpando C, Lean ME, Haffner SM. Prospective relation of C-reactive protein with type 2 diabetes: response to Snijder et al.. Diabetes Care 2003; 26: 16578.
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    Pradhan AD, Manson JE, Rifai N, Buring JE, Ridker PM. C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, and risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. JAMA 2001; 286: 32734.
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    Snijder MB, Dekker JM, Visser M, Stehouwer CD, Yudkin JS, Bouter LM, Heine RJ, Nijpels G, Seidell JC. Prospective relation of C-reactive protein with type 2 diabetes: response to Han et al.. Diabetes Care 2003; 26: 16567.
  • 38
    Yarnell J, McCrum E, Rumley A, Patterson C, Salomaa V, Lowe G, Evans A. Association of European population levels of thrombotic and inflammatory factors with risk of coronary heart disease: the MONICA Optional Haemostasis Study. Eur Heart J 2005; 26: 33242.
  • 39
    Woodward M, Rumley A, Welsh P, MacMahon S, Lowe G. A comparison of the associations between seven hemostatic or inflammatory variables and coronary heart disease. J Thromb Haemost 2007; 5: 1795800.
  • 40
    Cartier A, Cote M, Lemieux I, Perusse L, Tremblay A, Bouchard C, Després JP. Sex differences in inflammatory markers: what is the contribution of visceral adiposity? Am J Clin Nutr 2009; 89: 130714.
  • 41
    Khera A, Vega GL, Das SR, Ayers C, McGuire DK, Grundy SM, de Lemos JA. Sex differences in the relationship between C-reactive protein and body fat. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2009; 94: 32518.
  • 42
    Plewis I. Changes in the NCDS and BSC70 Populations and Samples Over Time. London: CLS, Institute of Education, 2004.